/ . 2.0 . /S
<^^ PRINCETON, N. J. ^
Purchased by the Hamill Missionary Fund.
BV 3415 .073 1908
Osgood, Elliott I. 1871-
Breaking down Chinese walls
Breaking Down Chinesi
From a Doctor's Viewpoint
.■',1 -• '
ELLIOTT L OSGOOD, A. M., M. D.
Missionary at Chu Cheo^ Anhwui Province^
China^ under the Foreign Christian
New York Chicago Toronto
Fleming H. Revell Company
London and Edinburgh
Copyright, 1908, by
FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY
New York: 158 Fifth Avenue
Chicago: 125 No. Wabash Ave.
Toronto: 25 Richmond Street, W.
London : 2 1 Paternoster Square
Edinburgh: 100 Princes Street
DR. ELLIOTT L OSGOOD, the author
of this work, has been in China as an
evangelist and physician for eight years.
Chu Cheo, a town about forty miles northwest
of Nanking, has been the scene of his labours.
The doctor's work has been to conduct a hospital
and dispensary in the central station at Chu
Cheo, visit and preach the Gospel and heal the
sick in the outstations and villages round about.
While at home on his furlough, Dr. Osgood
visited many American centres, speaking in the
interest of the work in China. His addresses
were so illuminating and so enjoyable that there
was a general demand for their publication.
These addresses constitute the substance of this
Dr. Osgood had it in mind from the first to
show that the daily life of the missionaries is one
of the most effective agencies in winning the
Chinese to Christ. He has shown that the
mother in her home caring for the children plays
a part scarcely less important than her husband
in the pulpit and in the hospital.
The Chinese know nothing about Christianity
before the missionary comes to them and they
6 INTRODUCTORY NOTE
care less. They have been proud of their time-
honoured institutions and rehgions. The mis-
sionary must not only preach Christ to them but
he must demonstrate by Uving illustrations the
superiority of Christianity over their heathen
For this purpose the missionaries have opened
dispensaries, hospitals and schools. They have
surrounded their homes with western con-
veniences and comforts. They have given lec-
tures in chemistry, electricity and mechanics
with experiments. The superiority of modern
tools over those used by the Chinese has been
shown. The Chinese have been given oppor-
tunity to compare foreign saddles, sewing ma-
chines, stoves and the construction of the mission
houses, with their own products.
In the mission hospital not only has the
superiority of modern surgery and medicine been
shown them but, far more important, they have
seen and felt the difference between the crude
and rough handling of the sick by their own
physicians and the tender, sympathetic work of
the medical missionary. They may not at first
appreciate the cleanliness enjoined in the hos-
pital, but they cannot help but be impressed with
the skill and gentleness of the foreigner as he
quiets the fevered patients and drives away the
The view of a man and woman standing on
INTRODUCTORY NOTE T
equal relations, at first shocks them, but the
longer they study the phenomenon, the more
must they be impressed with its power over
future generations. It had not occurred to them
that a man could find sweet fellowship with one
of the opposite sex. They had not dreamed of
a love like that manifested in the mission homes.
The elevation of womanhood to her rightful place
by the side of her brother has played a great
part in the elevation of modern nations. It is
slowly dawning upon the Chinese that if they
would become like other nations their woman-
kind must be given their rightful place.
All of these demonstrations are but an exposi-
tion of the power of Christ to uplift humanity and
eventually must lead the Chinese to accept Him.
They are a practical people. They will only de-
sire an article after its value has been proven to
them. By the homes, schools, hospitals and
other institutions, which missionaries have been
planting in China, the vital value of Christianity
to the needs of the Chinese is being demonstrated
and is winning them to Christ.
This book is different from any other book
upon the Chinese problem that has come to my
notice. It gives information the people desire,
and in a concrete form. No one can read what
Dr. Osgood has written without being enlight-
ened and without being drawn into fuller sym-
pathy with the men, women and children at the
8 INTRODUCTORY NOTE
front. Those who wish to know what a mis-
sionary family does and how it is done cannot do
better than to read this most interesting work.
President of the Foreign Christian
I. The Entering Wedge
II. A Day in the Dispensary . . .23
III. Stories of the Hospital . . .34
IV. In the Opium Refuge . . .44
V. The Missionary Compound . -55
VI. The Missionary Home as an Evangel-
istic Agency 67
VIL The Gospel Through a Brace and
VIII. The New Age in China . . .87
IX. Working with the New Element . 98
X. Seeking for Straws of Hope . .107
XI. Do THE Chinese Converts Make Sin-
cere Christians . . . .116
XII. My "Timothy" 126
XIII. Do Little Girls Count . . .137
XIV. A Chinese " Dorcas "... 145
XV. "Happiness is Come" . . .154
XVI. Chinese Roads and Streets . .164
XVII. When We Go Itinerating . .173
XVIII. The Chinese Evangelist . . .184
XIX. The Chinese as Givers . . . 192
XX. A Missionary Sanitarium . . . 200
XXI. The Fascination of the Mission
List of Illustrations
A Part of the Kuling Valley with the School Buildings
in the Foreground Ti^/e
Worshipping at the Confucian Temple by Successful
Mission Hospital at Lu Cheo Fu, Anhwui Province,
China. Dr. Buchart who has this Hospital in Charge,
Treats from One Hundred to One Hundred and Fifty
Patients a Day . 24
Missionaries Turning Aside from their Conference to an
Afternoon Tea 69
The Author's Home in Chu Cheo, China. His Dispen-
sary is Seen at the Right 69
A Group of Influential Chinese who Studied with the
Chinese School Children at the Chu Cheo Dispensary , loi
Chinese Christians in Convention 134
Mr. Shi, the Story -Teller Evangelist of the Chu Cheo
District and Mrs. Shi, the " Dorcas " of her Village . 148
Mr. Chen Li-Seng 148
Djao Lai-fu and His Charges 162
Little Missionaries 162
Entrance to Chu Cheo City, Showing Rut of Wheel-
barrow in Paving Stones ; City Gates, Wall and Moat;
and a Wayside Restaurant 17 1
Travelling on the Road in Sedan Chairs with Wheel-
barrows as Freight Cars 171
Evangelist Koh and Family of Chu Cheo District . 187
Evangehst Djao who was Picked Up from the Ranks of
Famine Refugees 187
Breakinpf Down Chinese Walls
THE ENTERING WEDGE
IN the midst of His higher ministry to men,
Christ was ever busy heaUng their diseases
and relieving their pains.. The most suc-
cessful mission work has been done in those
places where the missionaries first ministered to
the diseased conditions of the men whose souls
they were seeking to save.
David Livingstone won his way through Africa
with his medicine chest and a few well-chosen
surgical instruments. Peter Parker opened
China to the Gospel by use of the lancet. Dr.
Allen saved the life of a Korean prince after the
native doctors had tried in vain to staunch the flow
of blood with sealing wax. It was through this act
that the Hermit Kingdom was thrown open to
mission work. Evangelical missionaries tried in
vain to enter Kashmir until Dr. Elmslie with his
medical skill paved the way for the entrance of
Christianity. Likewise Dr. Carr succeeded in
establishing a mission station in Ispahan, Persia,
when other methods tried by his bishop had
12 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
The history of missions shows that medical
work is the key that unlocks the door to heathen
hearts. Simple help like the pulling of a tooth,
the lancing of an abscess, the giving of a dose of
quinine, or the application of sulphur ointment,
has opened regions hitherto unaccessible. It is
the purpose of this chapter to show how medical
missionaries have been used in opening China to
The Need. The scale of living among the
large portion of China's millions is very low.
Ignorance concerning the laws of hygiene, sani-
tation and health is dense. They have no quar-
antine. The meat from dead animals is eaten by
poorer classes. Kitchen refuse is thrown into a
cesspool at the front door. Typhus and typhoid
fevers, cholera and smallpox are prevalent
diseases. Dirty clothes and hands are applied
freely to inflamed eyes until chronic inflammation
of the lids, ingrowing eyelashes and opacity of
the cornea result therefrom. Sloughing of the
entire foot frequently follows foot binding.
Bruises and injuries to the skin surface resolve
themselves into ulcers. Ulcers are covered over
with gummy plasters which force the septic dis-
charge into the general circulation. Lack of
cleanliness causes sixty per cent, of the diseases
which appear at the door of the missionary
Evil spirits are supposed to be the cause of
THE ENTERING WEDGE 13
most diseases. The Chinese physician seeks to
cure the condition by expelling the evil spirit.
For this purpose he uses a long needle which,
cold or hot, clean or dirty, he thrusts into the part
of the body affected by the disease. His pur-
pose is to make an opening through which the
spirit may depart. Into the liver or neck, knee
or elbow joint, it is thrust, setting up inflammation
and abscesses, often rendering the part forever
Some of the experimental knowledge gleaned
by Chinese physicians is valuable, but it is so
often mixed up with superstitious ideas as to
render much of their practice useless and even
dangerous to life. They use a large variety of
vegetable drugs but with these they mix tigers'
claws, lions' bones, human flesh, blood of animals
and like peculiar ingredients.
Even such service as they qan render must be
monopolized by the richer classes as the poor
people have little money with which to pay
doctor's bills. The Chinese have no free dispen-
saries, no hospitals, no charitable institutions, —
or did not have until Christian missions taught
them the lesson. A poor man falls by the road-
side and remains there until he recovers his
strength or dies. His dead body may lie un-
buried until wild dogs and wolves devour the
flesh and only the whitened bones are left to tell
the story of another tragedy.
14 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
Infanticide is common among the lower classes.
The evidences of its practice are constantly before
the eyes of the missionary. Invariably it is the
girl babe which is destroyed. The people have
little knowledge as to the proper food for chil-
dren and large numbers of them are carried away
each year by pestilence. Those which survive
are constantly beset with ills. Babes are tied to
the back of an older sister and all through the
day the little eyes are allowed to face the glare of
the sun. Dust, dirty washclothes and the prev-
alence of specific diseases do the rest to rob
many a child of sight when it has just begun to
To save washing and watching the child, its
clothes are so made that it can care for itself.
The seeds of social impurity are thus sown at a
startlingly early period. Parents do not restrain
their talk before the children and the child lan-
guage becomes innocently vile. Missionary
children cannot be allowed to associate with them
because of this contamination.
There is another need for medical mission-
aries. Protestant Christendom has sent out sev-
enteen thousand men and women to bear the
Gospel to heathen nations. Ten thousand chil-
dren are growing up in those Christian homes
whose circle and circumference are walled back by
squalor, filth and contagious diseases, and whose
atmosphere is penetrated by a weakening climate.
THE ENTERING WEDGE 15
These missionary centres are often separated
from medical aid by many days' journey. Five
hundred and fifty men and two hundred and
fifty women physicians, eight hundred in all,
have been sent out who not only have the care
of the health of the missionaries in their keeping,
but also are annually treating three millions of
heathen patients in a thousand hospitals and dis-
pensaries. Medical missionaries often ride fifty
or one hundred miles to reach the bedside of one
of their fellow workers.
The Method. In large Chinese centres
modern hospitals have been erected either as the
gift of friends in the homelands or by rich Chi-
nese who appreciate the value of modern medi-
cine and surgery. The main building of a mis-
sion hospital may contain a chapel, waiting
room, examination room and dispensary. Wards
for men and women, surgical and medical cases,
opium breakers and special cases give room for
patients who must remain under the doctor's care
for a time. Conveniently situated is a modern
operating room. To these main departments
will be added other buildings to be used for
kitchens, assistants' room, laundry, etc. In small
cities the buildings are less elaborate, built to fit
the local needs.
In the greater number of the hospitals the
whole responsibility rests upon the shoulders of
one medical man who must meet every call,
16 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
whether medical or surgical. He must be an ex-
ecutive, handling assistants, cooks and coolies.
He must watch and instruct every assistant dur-
ing the clinics, operations and subsequent nurs-
ing of patients. The buying of supplies, the
preparation of dressings, the paying out of
moneys and even the presenting of the Gospel
to the thousands of patients, must be under his
The daily clinic will have patients from the
next door and a hundred miles away. Each
patient is accompanied by one or more friends.
They gather in chapel and listen to the Gospel
story as they wait. Each patient pays a nomi-
nal fee and is registered as to name, age, sex,
home and disease. Each receives a copy of a
Gospel. The door to the examination room is
opened and in turn they file in and are treated.
The abscesses are lanced, the ulcers cleansed and
dressed ; the surgical cases referred to the oper-
ating room and hospital ; the medicine is pre-
scribed and instructions, as to taking it, carefully
given. The number of those who daily pass
through the various dispensaries is from ten to
three hundred. The friends who accompany
them are legion.
The doctor watches all the cases. Under his
eye the assistants do the cleansing and dressing
and the giving out of drugs. It is difficult for
the Chinese to comprehend the mysteries of for-
THE ENTERING WEDGE lY
eign medicines. Too frequently the patient has
taken the external application internally and
rubbed the internal medicine on the outside.
The value of bathing and deep breathing, as
remedial agents, has never occurred to him.
The operating room. Surgeons on the mission
field take great care to hold their technique up to
modern standards. They read the best medical
magazines and spend a goodly part of their fur-
loughs in post-graduate work in medical col-
leges. They train their assistants to properly
sterilize dressings and instruments and prepare
themselves, the operating room and the patient
for the operation. One of them must be trained
to become an anesthetizer.
The list of operations performed in a mission
hospital reads like a compendium on surgery.
It is safe to say that nowhere in the wide world
can such a variety of aggravated cases, needing
surgical interference, be found. The patients
have passed through all the stages of neglect and
mal-treatment by the native doctors and fre-
quently come to the foreign physician as a last
resort. A successful operation, under such con-
ditions, usually meets with proper marks of grati-
tude and prepares favourable soil for the recep-
tion of the Gospel through subsequent conva-
The hospital. The wards have cement or wood
floors. The walls are plastered and well lighted.
18 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
Such surroundings are very different from those
found in the Chinese home. Where possible the
hospital owns its own bedding and has clothing
for the patients. When a patient is received, he
is given a thorough bath, his clothes are steril-
ized and put away and he is given a suit of
clothes from the hospital supplies. When he
leaves, his own clothing is returned to him.
Such is not always the case. Where funds are
insufficient, the patients must bring their own
bedding and wear their own clothing, but such con-
ditions are not favourable for good medical work.
The walls of the hospital are decorated with
Scripture texts and pictures in the Chinese lan-
guage and art. The spirit of Christ is poured
out upon the patients in tender ministry to their
diseased bodies. Having nothing to do, they
are in a receptive mood to hear the Gospel. The
Chinese evangelist and foreign doctor go among
them and both teach and illustrate the message
by their ministry. Some of these patients are in
the hospital for a day or two. Some remain
there for months.
Teaching the assistants is a necessary part of
the doctor's work. The servants must be taught
how to clean the rooms and furniture. The cook
must learn how to prepare food for sick people.
The medical assistants must long and carefully
study modern medicine. The best medical
works must be translated into the vernacular.
THE ENTERING WEDGE 19
The doctor himself must learn to put it all into
their language and thought. Every clinic be-
comes a recitation, every movement an example.
The assistants must not only become skillful
doctors, but skillful Christian doctors. An un-
principled assistant can undo all the good work
done by the doctor. The reproduction of the
Christ-life in them will double the influence of
The medical missionary visits patients in their
homes. To the homes of the poor he will go
without charge. The rich readily pay a proper
fee and make subscriptions to the hospital.
The doctor attends births, suicides, cases of con-
tagion and virulent fevers. He is even believed
to have power to raise the dead and finds him-
self called to a home where death has preceded
him by several hours.
The Results. The influence of the medical
work extends beyond the bounds of all other
missionary activities. No single evangelist with
a corps of Chinese helpers can visit as many
towns as are represented by the patients who
come to a single dispensary. The work has no
geographical bounds. The evangelist may be
driven out of a place by fanatical mobs, but no
such power can stop the sick in that place from
entering the mission hospital.
We might tell of mobs in distant places who
have been stilled by the mediation of some one
20 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
who, through ministration to his sick body, has
been brought under the spell of Christ, and who
now willingly endangers his own life to save
that of some missionary ; or of the homes which
have been thrown open to the evangelist itiner-
ating into distant places ; of the churches which
have sprung up and flourished for years before
being reached by the preacher, all under the
fostering care of the same grateful patients, who
have been saved both body and soul, while on a
forced visit to the foreign hospital.
Common labourers have refused pay for little
helps rendered to the doctor, because of his
kindness to them when they have been sick.
Consecrated evangelists have come from the
ranks of opium sots, saved from the toils of the
opium demon by the ministries of the doctor.
Thousands caught their first glimpse of the Christ
while in the hospital and are humbly following
Grateful patients among the rich classes have
willingly subscribed to the funds of the hospital
and, in cases, have built entire hospitals. The
assistants have been called to take charge of
institutions supported entirely from Chinese
sources and have carried their religion, as well
as their medical skill into these new spheres
of activity. Other students have set up inde-
pendent practice, and also become centres for
the spread of Christianity.
THE ENTEKING WEDGE 21
The medical missionary bears a heavy respon-
sibility in the development of the new church.
Upon him falls the responsibility of instructing
these babes in Christ in lessons of cleanliness,
social purity and sanitary science. He becomes
family doctor to the Christians. From him they
have learned that disease is not caused by the
entrance of evil spirits into the body. Christian
medicine is an enemy to all quackery, supersti-
tion, exorcism, and witchcraft. Wherever it has
come, these tools of Satan have been broken.
Works on physiology and anatomy have been
translated into almost as many languages as the
Bible itself. They have been introduced among
the Chinese and are now being used as text-books
in their public schools. The mission hospital is
a school for the teaching of the science of health.
Upon the medical missionary has fallen the
responsibility of the health of the entire mission-
ary body. The long terms of service in uncon-
genial climates, the rearing of children in un-
sanitary surroundings, the strenuous hardships
endured in this great service of Christ have been
made possible by the untiring devotion of the
It is no small thing that strength and health,
skill and learning, tenderness and sympathy,
wealth and personality, should be freely given to
the destitute and decrepit, the foul and vile, the
poor and homeless. The medical missionary, in
22 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
the midst of the multitudes crowding around
and, on bended knee, imploring his ministrations
in their behalf, is not unlike Him who made the
blind to see, the lame to walk, cleansed the
lepers, unstopped the ears of the deaf, raised the
dead and preached the Gospel to the poor. ** I
was naked and ye clothed Me ; sick and ye
visited Me ; in prison and ye came unto Me."
A DAY IN THE DISPENSARY
SILKS and satins may be seen here and
there among those gathered in the waiting
room of the mission dispensary but the
greater part of the patients are wearing faded
and much patched cotton garments. An Ameri-
can tramp would be ashamed to wear some of
the garments displayed. Yet these patients are
not tramps. They are refugees, day labourers,
and fuel cutters who are suffering under a weight
of oppression and sickness, people who rarely
know a full meal.
A number of them are opium smokers, A
** hitter of the pipe " can be told by his stooped
shoulders, discoloured teeth and the burned holes
in his garments. Some time when he has been
nodding over his pipe, his coat has come too near
the flame of the opium lamp. Ask him if he
smokes and ten chances to one he will deny it.
Pick up the index finger of his right hand and
show him the stain that comes from the daily
moulding of the little opium ball which he must
heat and roll into shape for the bowl of his opium
pipe. He will look up with a foolish grin and
24 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
remark to the other patients about the shrewd-
ness of the foreigner.
It is nearing the dinic hour. The patients
have registered and paid a nominal fee of three
or four cents. The evangelist steps up to the desk
and begins to speak. His subject is chosen
from a series of thirty, one for each day of the
month. Those subjects, beginning with " There
is One God," cover the salient points of the
plan of salvation. Most of them dwell upon the
life and ministry of our Lord while on earth.
Month by month the patients are ever changing
but these are subjects that must be preached to
them all. In the simplest manner the evangelist
seeks to impress his motley audience with the
connection between the mission dispensary and
God who *' so loved the world." Oh, it has to
be simple. If one would learn how to speak to
little children let him first practice on a disease-
stricken Chinese audience.
The doctor comes in to obtain a general view
of the day's patients. A beggar presses his way
through the crowd and, falling down upon his
knees, bumps his head upon the bare bricks of
the waiting-room floor.
" Foreign official, I am a poor beggar and
have no money. My little boy has been sick a
longtime. Will you not, for merit's sake, 'do
good deeds ' and heal my boy ? "
He pushes forward a little fellow, pale and
Worshipping at the Confucian Temple by successful
^Mission Hospital at Lu Cheo Fu. Anhwui Province. China.
Dr. Buchart, who has this hospital in charge, treats from
one hundred to one hundred and nfty patients a day.
A DAY IN THE DISPENSARY 25
anemic. Malaria has been shaking the poor lit-
tle form to pieces. His lips are blue. The wasted
limbs can scarcely support the distended abdomen.
As we give him the medicine and carefully in-
struct him as to the method of taking it, we
gently tell the father of the One who used to heal
by a touch such little ones as this boy. We tell
him that by reason of Christ having laid up merit
for us by His death on the cross, we no longer
need to *'do good deeds'' for ourselves. We
minister to the sick because He saw how men
suflFer and die in anguish. Because of His pity
for such. He asked us to come to the sick among
the Chinese and minister to them for Him.
The rest of the patients and their friends have
crowded around as we have been speaking and
begin to press forward their claims. Ulcered
limbs, swollen jaws, fevered babies and emaciated
forms are brought to our attention. Every
patient is accompanied by one or more members
of his family who join in the general clamor.
So we step inside and the doorkeeper, at signal,
admits them group by group. A large per
cent, of the patients are afflicted with some form
of sepsis, brought on by dirt and neglect. Could
they have known and observed the simple law of
cleanliness, one half of them would never have
needed to come near the doctor. Cleansing
must be the first step in the healing process. It
is likewise the last step. The lance, the electric
26 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
battery, the dusting powders, the ointments, the
dressings, are all adjuncts to the one main
remedy of cleanliness.
Here is a man who has suffered for years with
a large ulcer on his leg. If he will come steadily
for a month, or better still, remain for a time in
the hospital, his long standing trouble will be
cured. The next man has spent money and time
on Chinese doctors but has grown steadily
worse. He came to us a week ago. Now one
need but look into his face to see that he is being
healed. He pours out his thanks every time an
This woman, nursing her swollen face, catches
her first glimpse of a pair of dental forceps. The
Chinese have no such surgical instrument. Their
only relief for toothache, or neuralgia, or rheuma-
tism, or any other form of that terrible malady
called Pain, is opium. To opium they flee sooner
or later, until thousands upon thousands are
added to the list of victims of this habit, all because
of Pain. Very soon this woman is going out of
the door with that offending molar in her hands.
She shows it to her friends who gather around her
outside. She tells them how easy the foreign
doctor pulled it and how the pain is already gone.
When they fall under the bondage of this same
tyrant, they will know where to come for quick
relief. The extraction of that tooth has saved
another victim from the opium habit.
A DAY IN THE DISPENSARY 27
An old man walks slowly into the waiting-
room. He is a Christian. But a short time ago
his sons brought him to the hospital. He was
suffering with an abscess of the liver. For days
his life hung in the balance. Now he can walk
about. He greets every one with a smile of
gladness. As we minister to the other patients,
we hear him among the waiting ones, telling
how good God has been to him. He will do as
much good as a gifted evangelist, for has he not
been sick and is now almost well ? He is show-
ing the patients a ** sample " of what God is do-
ing through the medical missionary.
A woman and a little child come in together.
They are groping their way and peering out of
their dim eyes to locate the doctor. Both are
blinded by opaque scars on their eyes, the result
of chronic ulceration. Dirt was the primary
cause. It is hard to tell them that their cases are
hopeless. Had they come earlier they might
have been helped, but was there a doctor and a
dispensary there when the trouble began ? An
old lady, also blind, follows them. There is some
hope for her. If she will submit to a surgical
operation and have those cataracts removed from
her eyes she can see once more. A man with
reddened eyeballs is the next patient. Dirt is
the primary factor in this case, too. Chronic in-
flammation has scarred the inner surface of the
eyelids until the eyelash has been drawn in and
28 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
now mechanically irritates the eye. If he does
not allow the surgeon to remedy the condition,
he, too, will soon be blind.
Another group enters the gate of the hospital
yard carrying a woman on a rude litter. A
crowd gather about the new arrival as her
bearers place the litter under the shadow of the
veranda. We join the crowd. Her twitching
face, spasms over her entire body tell us she is
in the extreme stages of hydrophobia.
" Where did the dog bite her ? " asks one of the
" Oh, the dog did not bite her flesh. He just
tore her clothing."
Can we bluntly tell them that the woman has
positively no real hydrophobia, that she is
simply suffering from fear? Would that we
might be able to do so and thus convince the
patient of her error. The Chinese believe that
even though only the clothing is torn the virus is
imparted to the party attacked. Do what we
can, we cannot turn back the flood of error which
has carried this woman into the last stages of
this dread condition. She is too far gone. We
turn away with a heavy heart to attend to the
needs of other patients. There are some things
the missionary doctor cannot do. A few days
later we are told that the woman is dead.
Who is next? Some friends lead us to a
woman sitting in the corner of the waiting-room.
A DAY IN THE DISPENSARY 29
Anxiety is expressed in her countenance. Her
face is elongated. She seems in a pitiable
''What is the matter?"
She tries to speak but her utterance is indis-
tinct and her friends answer for her. " She was
sitting outside the door the other evening talking.
She yawned as we often do when sleepy. Some-
thing caught and she has been unable to close
her mouth since. She cannot eat or talk and it
aches constantly unless we give her an opiate."
She has dislocated her lower jaw. The med-
ical assistant slips his thumbs into her mouth,
presses down on the lower teeth, the jaw slips
into place and the look on that woman's face is
worth going across the ocean to see. One
woman came to the dispensary who had been in
such a condition for six months. The old point
of articulation had been destroyed by disuse and
the jaw had become fixed in its new position.
Nothing but a severe operation could relieve her
and the means were not at hand for performing
it. She would have to pass through life with
both jaws immovable and all use of her teeth
lost. Could she have come to us when the acci-
dent occurred she could easily have been cured.
A boy comes in with his fingers spread apart
and his arms held away from contact with his
body. Scabies is another disease which flour-
ishes where bathing facilities are lacking. The
30 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
Chinese have no sulphur to cure and no knowl-
edge of how to escape contracting the disease.
In America it is a source of humiliation to the
patient and a source of amusement to his friends.
In China it is a source of death. The disease,
unchecked, spreads over the body, setting up
abscesses by its poison and the patient may die
of sepsis. The giving of a little sulphur oint-
ment in China may mean the saving of a life.
Another group is calling for assistance. They
are better clothed than the ordinary and their
trouble has arisen by reason of their superior
condition. One of their number has been under
the treatment of a Chinese physician. The lat-
ter has used the usual method of acupuncture.
Unfortunately for the Chinese doctor, — and the
patient, the needle has been broken off just be-
neath the skin. He could thrust in the needle,
but to extract the broken piece is beyond his
power. So in their desperation and helplessness
they have been driven to the foreign doctor.
The broken end of the needle can be felt just be-
neath the skin. We inject a local anesthetic and
soon present the patient and his friends the lost
portion of the needle. Since they are rich
enough to call a Chinese physician we are per-
fectly willing to accept a proper fee for our serv-
ices. Why should we not ? Have we not done
what a Chinese physician was unable to do ?
The Chinese are afflicted with such a variety
A DAY IN THE DISPENSARY 31
of digestive troubles. That they all drink hot
tea and no cold water and that they cook nearly
all the food used is doubtless the reason they are
not swept off the face of the earth by pestilence.
Each summer vast numbers of little children die
as the result of injudicious eating and drinking.
A hungry stomach will accept an article for food
that a full one would reject in disgust. Rice is
the principal food in Central China. Vegetables,
meats, fish, etc., are treated as relishes. That
which is cast away by the wealthier becomes food
for the poorer classes. *' All is fish that comes
to the Chinaman's net." Be the animal freshly
butchered or one that has died of disease, there
is always some one ready for the feast, some one
who will claim any part not desired by others
who might have first claim and choice.
Thus all forms of digestive disturbances, from
mere irritation to violent ptomaine poisoning,
appear at the door of the dispensary. One says
he has a ball in his stomach ; another, a worm ;
a third cannot swallow ; the stomach of a fourth
is swollen and tense ; and a fifth case may even
claim to have a turtle wiggling around inside.
Such may be their description of their cases but
to the doctor falls the difficult task of ascertain-
ing what these patients really mean and then
finding the remedial agent which will heal or re-
lieve. When a man is starving to death it is not
medicine which he needs.
32 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
Patients suffering from many other varieties of
troubles stray in. There are many who can be
cured only by long and careful treatment. There
are many who cannot command the proper en-
vironment for healing. Some cannot be cured
at all. Daily is the heart of the doctor wrung
within him. The surgeon must follow a skillful
operation with an all-night vigil before he can
bring some patient up from the jaws of death.
An American physician once said, " We have so
many hopeless cases, so many pitiful ones, that
if it were not for the cases which we can and do
relieve, we could well wish we had never seen
the inside of a medical college."
The cases which the missionary doctor does
heal and relieve are the ones which hold him to
his post. Standing daily in the midst of suffer-
ing humanity, cooling fevered brows and com-
forting troubled hearts, the doctor finds his suffi-
cient joy. If he were not there they would have
no one else to whom they might turn for aid.
Having once stood in that place of healing, the
doctor could not leave them if he would.
Some day the doctor will be travelling over
the country far away from that Chinese city he
calls " home." He will be entering some village
whose attitude is very hostile to the foreigner.
Some one will step out from that mob and lead
the doctor into his home. He will show the
doctor such honour as he would to a prince.
A DAY IN THE DISPENSARY 33
Then he will turn to the hostile crowd and tell
them how when he was sick and in trouble, this
doctor came to him, took him into his hospital
and healed him. Then the doctor will feel a little
of that thrill of joy which must come to him who
hears the words, " Well done, thou good and
faithful servant. Enter thou into the joy of thv
Lord.'' ^ ^ ^
STORIES OF THE HOSPITAL
AN old man and his wife who had been re-
duced to beggary by disease were found
sitting at the gate of our medical com-
pound. The woman, while a girl, had attracted
the attention of a rich man by her beauty and had
been taken by him as a secondary wife. From
him she contracted disease which destroyed her
beauty and, to a large extent, shut out the world
from her. Her hearing was gone, articulation of
speech was lost, one eye was destroyed and her
face was left scarred and deformed. The rich
man had lost all interest in her and sent her back
to her parents.
A few years later this old man, then a strong,
active stone-mason, came through the town where
her parents lived. He wanted a wife but had little
money to spend. He could get her cheap and
so took her for his wife. Her disease was trans-
mitted to him ; he fell sick and his strength was
taken away. For several years they had begged
from door to door.
It took them eight days to walk the twenty-
five miles to our hospital. They sat at our gate
STORIES OF THE HOSPITAL 35
begging, not for money, but for healing. They
had no money to pay for treatment or for food
while being treated. It costs only one dollar a
month to board the ordinary patient, so we de-
cided to reward the faith that had brought them
to us. The woman was beyond the reach of
medicine but able to help herself. We could not
give back to her lost hearing or lost tissue. So
we turned our attention to her lamed and weak-
ened husband. Slowly his strength came back
and his sores were healed.
He would sit in the chapel at the morning
worship, but he seemed so ignorant that it did
not seem possible for him to comprehend much
of the Gospel story. On Sundays he would hob-
ble over to the church services. One day he asked
for baptism. Of course we were surprised. But
when we questioned him we found that while he
could not repeat the Scriptures or read them, yet
the essence of the Gospel had reached his heart
and he knew in whom he was believing. He had
comprehended the spirit of Christ and henceforth
became His follower.
When he was nearly well again, he went out
to one of the old buildings over the city gates, a
place given over to beggars. There he parti-
tioned off a corner and set up a litde home. He
returned to his old trade and began to earn his
living once more.
One day we had some work needing the serv-
36 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
ices of a common labourer and called him to do
it. He worked away diligently for a week. At
the end of the time we brought the cash to pay
him and poured it into his hands. He looked
down at it and up at us with a troubled expression.
*' Doctor, I do not like to take this money, for
I feel that to take it is sinning against you, — or
God, I do not know which."
It was his pay. He had done faithful work.
Why should he not feel right about taking it ?
He was a poor man and lived by the labour of
his hands. He could not live without wages.
** Doctor," he said again, '' I came here four
years ago, a broken-down, lame beggar. You
healed me and gave me two good legs, so that I
can work again like any other man. It was here
that I learned about my Saviour and began to
follow Him. All that I have and hope to have,
has come through your ministries to me. Now,
to take pay for this little amount of work, which
I would gladly do to show my appreciation for
what you have done for me, — it does not seem
right. I feel that I am doing wrong to take it."
Who would want to say that this man had not
comprehended the spirit of the Gospel ?
A poor farmer ran a thorn into his heel. The
entire heel became inflamed. Gangrene set in
and the flesh sloughed off. In this condition he
entered the " beggars' ward " of the hospital in
Nanking. He stayed there for some months and
STORIES OF THE HOSPITAL 37
the wound slowly healed. Then he went out and
became a beggar on the street. The foot be-
came worse and he came back to the hospital.
In his leisure time he picked up copies of the
Gospels and began learning to read. In a few
months he was able to read large parts of the
New Testament. He asked for baptism and after
a proper length of time in which he showed his
sincerity, he was admitted to church membership.
He began propagating the Gospel among the
other patients in the beggars' ward. In a short
time he found a welcome at the bedside of other
patients. As a direct result of his work in the
hospital, not less than seventy people were bap-
In the northern part of Kiang-su province a
missionary, while itinerating through a portion of
the country hitherto unvisited by foreigners, was
attacked by a mob who pelted him with mud and
brickbats. He hurried along the street looking
for a way of escape. A well-dressed Chinaman,
who was standing at the door of a fine native
house, saw him coming around the corner and,
opening the door of the house, pulled him inside
and shut the door upon the rabble.
The Chinaman apologized for the boys in true
oriental style and asked the missionary if he would
be willing to tell him and his friends about the
" foreigners' Gospel." As "long as he could stay
in the place the missionary was royally entertained
38 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
and kept busy preaching to the host and his
friends. A congregation of believers in that city
is the result.
When the missionary asked his host the reason
for thus befriending him and requesting the Gos-
pel to be preached in his home, the Chinaman
told the following story. Some years before, he
had been in Shanghai on business. He fell sick
and spent all his money. His landlord was about
to turn him into the street when, through the in-
tervention of friends, he was taken to Dr. Boone's
hospital. The tender, sympathetic attention there
received led him to listen to the Gospel. When
he returned to his home he had carried away a
desire to know more of this " heavenly doctrine,"
a desire he had treasured for twelve years with
the above result.
Late one afternoon Dr. Macklin and A. E. Cory,
two missionaries from Nanking, entered a market
town, two hundred and fifty miles north of their
home station. Tired with their long day's ride
they dismounted and led their horses up the street
looking for an inn where they might spend the
night. No friendly innkeeper asked them to come
in. All of their requests for lodging were met
with a cold " no room." It was too late to ride
on to the next village, and they might receive no
better treatment if they did. What should they do ?
Mr. Cory held the horses while the doctor
stepped across the street to try his tact upon one
STORIES OF THE HOSPITAL 39
of the obdurate innkeepers. A well-dressed
Chinese came leisurely along the street, picking
his way over the rough cobblestones. At the
sight of the usual crowd gathered around the
horses he looked up and discovered the foreigner
in the midst.
" Why, you are a foreigner," he exclaimed in
*^ You are not wrong," wearily answered the
missionary in Chinese idiom.
"Where are you from?" He seemed inter-
** Nanking." The missionary did not feel like
talking. He wondered if the man would ask him
if his saddle was made of leather, and what his
shoes cost, and why he wore collars, and if they
had the same sun and moon in America. They
usually asked such foolish questions as these.
*' Nanking ! " was his next exclamation. " Do
you know Dr. Macklin ? "
"There he is over across the street."
The Chinaman walked across the street, got
down on his knees before the astonished doctor
and knocked his head on the ground in the true
Chinese kotow. What was the matter? Four
years ago he had taken his sick son to the doctor's
hospital at Nanking where he was cured of his
disease. The man had never forgotten the kind-
ness there received. This was the first oppor-
tunity he had had to express his appreciation. He
40 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
took the missionaries to his own home and set be-
fore them the best that could be found in the town.
His house was turned temporarily into a speaking
hall and he himself reinforced the words of the
missionaries by telling his fellow townsmen of
what he had received and learned while at Nan-
king in the doctor's hospital.
A little fellow with hip joint disease, was brought
to our hospital by his relatives. His father was
dead and his mother had remarried and moved to
a distant place. His trouble being of tubercular
origin, the prognosis at best was doubtful. Should
he recover he must still be a cripple for life. His
mother was far away and his relatives had little
love to waste upon him. His was a lonely, hope-
In the hospital his leg was daily dressed with
tender care. The assistants watched over him.
We fed him milk and gave him flowers. Simple
books that he could read and bright pictures
brought him daily pleasure. Such a case, for
both patient and doctor, is a long and weary fight.
One day, when he was seeming to grow steadily
worse with little hope of ultimate recovery, we
asked him, should he not recover, whether he
would prefer going back to the home of his rela-
tives or stay with us in the hospital.
"I know," he said, "that my relatives could
not and would not care for me as you treat me
here. But more than that, Mr. Tsu (the medical
STORIES OF THE HOSPITAL 41
assistant) has been teaching me about Jesus Christ
and I would like to learn more about Him."
Thus another little life has had his burden
lightened by the ministry of the Christian hospital.
In his body has been worked out the contrast be-
tween heathen indifTerence towards, and Christian
sympathy for, the suffering and neglected little
After the missionary doctor has established a
reputation among the Chinese as a successful
operator, he finds it necessary to be careful as to
what procedure he recommends a patient. Those
who have come under the influence of his minis-
try learn to trust him implicitly. Has he not
saved their lives and the lives of their relatives
when there was none other recourse ? With the
utmost faith in him they lie down upon the table
for an operation that may mean life or death.
One old lady came to Dr. Hart of Wuhu. She
came only as a last resort for she had no regard
for foreigners or their religion. Cancer of the
breast was rapidly carrying her towards her grave.
The operation was a successful one. While she
lay convalescing in the hospital, she had time to
see and time to think and hear. She gave herself
to Christ and went back to her distant home a
Five years later she came again. The same
trouble in the form of an axillary tumour had
developed. With perfect confidence she made
42 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
the second journey to the hospital and placed
herself under the doctor whom she probably
loved next to her Saviour.
On the morning of the operation she walked
into the room with a bright smile and lay down
to sleep upon the table. For three hours the
doctor worked among a most intricate network
of blood-vessels and nerves to reach the root of
the tumour. Her life hung by a tiny thread. But
again strength was granted her and she went
home with another lease of life. Is it any won-
der that the Chinese, under such conditions, come
to almost worship the missionary doctor ?
Yet he cannot save all who come. So long
has prejudice against foreign innovations been
rooted in the hearts of the Chinese that only ter-
rible pain or hastening dissolution of the body
will drive them to the doctor's door. There are
cases of disease which have been neglected so
long that the body has become deformed, or new
growths implanted, or poison has been dissem-
inated through the system. The patient has
come perhaps a hundred miles of weary road
hoping that the missionary doctor might bring
life and strength back to his broken body. It is
hard under such conditions to shake the head and
render a hopeless verdict.
And still, even in such instances, the hospital
has its influence. There will gather around
them in the hospital enclosure, the patients who
STORIES OF THE HOSPITAL 43
are staying in the hospital. These will tell the
disappointed one of the wonderful cures the
doctor is performing in other kinds of diseases.
They will also tell of the tenderness and sympathy
with which they are all being treated. And that
patient will go back to his distant home with a
dim vision of a Gospel of hope and love. Per-
haps to his friends, gathering about him in the
eventide, he will tell of the lame who have
walked, of the blind that have been made to see,
of the opium sot who has come away clean and
that to all who visit that hospital there is pointed
out a way whereby men may escape eternal death.
He will tell, perhaps in a distorted way, of a
heavenly Official, who loves men and has sent a
"Jesus," who died that men might live; and how
these foreigners say that they are doing this
work not for merit's sake but because this same
Jesus has asked them to help the suffering ones
in China. Only God knows how far extends the
power of His Gospel through the healing agency
of the mission hospital.
IN THE OPIUM REFUGE
DOWN in South China near Foochow is
a village of a thousand inhabitants.
Missionaries have preached in that vil-
lage for many years with scant results. Not
long ago four opium smokers went down to Dr.
Wilkinson's hospital at Foochow and were cured
of the habit. One of them secreted some of the
anti-opium pills given him at the hospital and
when he reached home gave them to his wife
and cured her of opium smoking also. All of
them straightened up, regained their former
elasticity and looked like new men.
A reformed smoker had up to this time never
been seen in that village. The head men called
a council, made up a purse of fifty dollars and
through the local Christians, sent down a petition
to Dr. Wilkinson. With the petition they sent a
committee and a sedan chair. The doctor was
invited to bring up to the village such retinue
and remedial agents as should be necessary.
The head men would agree to gather into their
largest ancestral hall all the opium smokers of
the village and give all possible aid to the doctor
IN THE OPIUM REFUGE 45
in breaking these of their habit and driving
opium out of the village.
Dr. Wilkinson consented to the agreement and
found upon arrival a group of eighty men and
nine women awaiting his ministrations. The in-
fluential men in the place took upon themselves
the duty of aids to the doctor and right faithfully
they carried out his orders. Every house and
store was thrown open to his search. By their
request he confiscated all opium and opium ac-
cessories found. They sent a petition to their
district magistrate and secured an edict forever
prohibiting the sale or smoking of opium in the
village. In every way they cooperated with the
doctor and held up his hands.
Two of the patients scaled the walls of the an-
cestral hall and banished themselves from the
village. One feeble old man, who had used the
drug for thirty-five years, was too feeble to en-
dure the strain but he was tenderly nursed
through the closing days of his life and in a few
weeks passed away. With his death there passed
out of the town the last opium smoker.
The remainder of the patients were taken
through the three weeks allotted for the work.
Those were strenuous days. Sometimes a patient
would sullenly refuse the medicine. Upon the
person of another would be found secreted pills
of opium. Some other inhabitant of the town
would be located who had taken the drug so
46 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
covertly that he had escaped the vigilance of his
own townsmen. Day would be turned into
night and night into day by the calls and moans
of the distressed patients, now awakening from
their long " opium sleep." Disease had started
most of them into the drug habit and now, with
the opium withdrawn, was remanifesting itself
and demanding the attention of the doctor.
Realizing that unless a moral uplift accom-
panied the physical one, the effect of the work
would be largely neutralized. Dr. Wilkinson
made the religious teaching a prominent feature.
Both foreign and Chinese evangelists aided him.
In the presence of the ancestral tablets of thirty
generations in that great hall, the saving powder
of Christ was taught in daily worship. The
elders and influential men of the village joined in
When the three weeks were over and the
patients released to return to their homes, a great
service of thanksgiving was held in the former
chapel. It was too small for the crowds that
pressed in. It continued to be filled at later serv-
ices and a larger place was secured. The
Church had become a power in the town.
Six months later a census of the ex-opium
smokers was taken and it was found that only
one had returned to his pipe. Of the rest for ty-
three had enrolled themselves as enquirers and
were seeking to be Christians. The village was
IN THE OPIUM REFUGE 47
clear of its former plague and prospering as it
had not for generations.
During the next few years in China this ex-
periment will be repeated many times. There
are probably 40,000,000 opium smokers in the
empire. The throne has put out an edict that
the traffic must cease within the next ten years.
Opium dens must close and farmers must cease
to grow the poppy. The campaign has begun
in many districts accompanied with great patri-
otic demonstrations. Foochow has closed three
thousand dens on her streets. Shanghai has put
out an edict to accomplish the same end. The
people are ready for the change and demanding
that the edict be carried into effect. For some
years medical missionaries have found the opium
refuge in constant demand and many smokers
have gone out of the mission refuges testifying
to the efficacy of the treatment received.
Through surgical operations and medical relief
given the mission hospital and dispensary has
opened thousands of homes to the Gospel.
What a marvellous opportunity is here pre-
Chinese physicians have no means of coping
with the terrible evil and some foreign and Chi-
nese druggists have intensified the problem by
placing upon the Chinese market everywhere
an anti-opium pill which contains morphine. A
smoker has lost all his own will-power and is
48 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
helpless in the bonds of the habit. Not one in a
thousand could, unaided, conquer the craving, if
he should try. To the three hundred medical
missionaries in China there has been opened a
great and effectual door. Upon their shoulders
will fall the burden of this stupendous task in-
augurated by the government.
The effect of the drug upon its victims is to
make them strangely inconsistent and wholly un-
reliable. It debases their moral nature. A man
comes to the refuge really desiring to break away
from the curse, yet he must be searched for opium
pills which he has secreted upon his person.
Often an extra payment as a guarantee of good
faith is demanded to compel the observance of
the necessary regulations. This is returned to
the man when he leaves, — unless he has left too
soon by the short route of over the wall at night.
The hold of the drug upon its victim is worse
than alcohol. He must have his pipe every day
and two or three times every day. Every day he
must waste two or three hours upon the opium
couch. He has to neglect his business. If his
profits do not amount to a sufficient sum he must
mortgage or sell his property to satisfy his crav-
ing for the drug. It is the curse of market towns
where most of the business is done on market
days. These places have usually two days in
every ten in which the farmers from the sur-
rounding country will gather in to do their buy-
IN THE OProM REFUGE 49
ing and bartering. The remainder of the time is
spent by the shopkeepers in lounging, gambling
and smoking. The larger cities are cursed only
in lesser proportion.
Medical missionaries have followed two meth-
ods in curing these patients. Those who have
the time and money and those who have been
using large amounts of the drug, are treated by
gradually lessening the amount of the drug as
the patient increases in strength under the influ-
ence of the hospital treatment. The majority of
patients treated have little time and less money.
These have their opium cut off at once and are
only given doses of morphine at periods when
the craving becomes uncontrollable. In the latter
cases if the patient has not been using excessive
quantities of the drug, the craving will disappear
in three days. The physician has then before
him the problem of overcoming manifestations of
latent disease which the drug had been keeping in
partial abeyance and the building up of a weak-
Those first three days are days of agony for
the patient and days of wearying watchfulness on
the part of the physician and his assistants. The
patient has little control over himself and at any
moment he may throw discretion to the winds
and seek relief by escape to the opium den. In-
tense restlessness, weakness of the heart and
muscles, numbness of the limbs, sleeplessness,
50 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
rheumatic pains, and an agonizing distress in the
gastric region, are some of the torments endured.
How to control the mind of the patient is the
key to all treatment. The same drug must be
prepared in various forms. Electricity, massage,
hot-water bags, sweat baths, appeals, commands
and hypnotic suggestion find their part in the
curative process. Flowers, books, pictures, the
gramophone, the stereopticon, teaching of prayer,
singing of hymns, and religious instruction all
come into play in turning the patient's thoughts
away from self and to Him who is able to keep
unto the uttermost.
The implanting of a moral ambition is an ab-
solute essential to the complete cure of a patient.
The opium dens lining the streets, the smell of
opium filling the air, the knowledge of the power
of opium to relieve pain and the tempter offering
the pipe while business is being transacted, are
too strong an allurement to be resisted by the
nerve tracks of one who has long been under the
spell of the drug. When the claims of manhood
and the hopes of eternity enter into consideration,
the battle is half won.
Two young men came into our refuge. One
used an ounce of the raw drug daily and the
other was consuming six-tenths of an ounce.
Both passed out of the hospital cured of their
craving although it was at the cost of extreme
suffering. Both were business heads of their re-
IN THE OPIUM REFUGE 51
spective clans and had to be on the street much
of their time. A business transaction in China
calls for the pipe as one in America calls for the
cigars or a drink. They both fell. One came
back twice to overcome the craving but it is
doubtful if either ever wholly conquered.
A woman was brought to us by her husband, —
or the man who claimed to be her husband. She
had smoked for a number of years. There is a
looseness in marital relations among the peasant
classes that is not to be commended. After she
was first married her husband discovered her
craving for the drug. She was too expensive a
luxury for him to support and so at his first op-
portunity he turned her over to another man for
a small sum of money. This operation had been
repeated until she had been the wife of nine men.
The last one had heard of the opium refuge and
conceived the idea of compelling her to break
He left one of his daughters-in-law to care for
the woman, while she remained under our care.
The woman persuaded the daughter-in-law to go
out secretly and buy opium for her. At the end
of the allotted time the husband came down to
take his wife home only to find her still addicted
to the drug. He persuaded us to allow her to
remain in a little longer while he stayed with her
himself. This time the cure was effective. But
with no moral influence controlling her, such a
52 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
woman will return to her pipe when the restrain-
ing watchfulness of her husband is relaxed.
Contrast with these the following cases. A
young Chinese had listened to the Gospel and
changed his life until nothing but his opium
craving stood between him and his fully obeying
Christ. He plead with the missionary to aid him
in overcoming the habit. The missionary had
no experience in such a line of work and hesitated
about attempting the task. The Chinese said
that if the missionary would just give him a room
and lock him in it, he would willingly make him-
self a prisoner in order to overcome the craving
and become a Christian. It was finally done.
Food and drink were furnished him and prayer
was daily made in his behalf. The young man
fought the battle through and has been a stead-
fast, consistent Christian ever since.
Evangelist Shi Gwei-biao of the Christian
Mission in the Yangtse valley is a striking ex-
ample of the power of Christ to save and keep a
man from the curse of opium. He was a brilliant
story-teller, earning large sums of money on the
streets and at festivals. For twenty years he
travelled over the country. He spent his money
as fast as he earned it — all at the feet of the opium
demon. He fell into complete beggary and as-
sociated with his fellow kind, living under bridge
arches and broken ruins.
A copy of the Gospel of Mark accidentally fell
IN THE OPIUM EEFUGE 53
into his hands. He used its stories to replenish
his stock in trade. The life of a convert to Chris-
tianity here and there attracted his attention and
the vitality of the Gospel, as revealed in their
lives, drew him to Christ. Had not that light
come to his soul, his physical nature, so long out-
raged, would not have granted him the now
twenty years of life he has so nobly spent in the
service of the Master.
It is an axiom that an opium smoker cannot be
a Christian. So the determination to break away
from his pipe was the natural outcome of his de-
sire to follow Christ. In Dr. Macklin's hospital
Shi conquered and fell, conquered and fell, until
the conception of the power of prayer led him to
his knees before the Lord where he gained his
final victory. That experience in the school of
prayer has led to his winning nearly threescore of
men and women to Christ.
Heretofore heathenism, feeling no responsibil-
ity of brotherhood, placed no barrier in the way
of any evil which might seek entrance into China.
Opium found little moral opposition to its des-
troying progress through the empire. From the
buying of India's crop China proceeded to the
planting of her own poppies until she made her
supply of cereals inadequate to feed her starving
The Anti-Opium League, an organization orig-
inated and fostered by missionaries, has pub-
54 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
lished and scattered literature in Europe, America
and China. This society has carried on a
campaign among the Chinese which has finally-
culminated in the famous Opium Edict. The
leaders of the people and the people themselves
are now rising up and demanding its enforce-
ment. Opium smoking officials and others who
derive profit from the sale of the drug, are its op-
posers. But every paper brings accounts of the
growing sentiment for the carrying out of the
edict. The day is coming when China will be as
free of opium as is Japan ; and the day is also
coming when in China as in America there will
be recognized the responsibility of brotherhood.
THE MISSIONARY COMPOUND
THE term ** compound ' ' is applied through-
out the Orient to any piece of ground
used by foreigners, which is enclosed by
walls and upon which are erected buildings. The
term is supposed to have been derived from a
Malayan word meaning enclosure. The mission-
ary compound may contain buildings for the mis-
sionary's home, kitchens, both foreign and
Chinese, servants' quarters, stables, hospital,
school, or chapel, according to the needs of the
The erection of mission buildings in a Chinese
city means permanency of Christian influence in
that city and surrounding district. Henceforth
those buildings are to be an important factor in
the city's history. They will affect every interest
in the government, morals and religion. They
will stand as a silent rebuke to graft, official in-
justice, immorality and idolatry. They will be-
come synonyms for the Gospel in healing and
education, hope and love.
The boundary wall is from seven to nine feet
high. It gives security, prevents pilfering and
grants privacy. A Chinese thief will rarely climb
56 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
over the wall of a foreign compound. If he can-
not come through the gate, he will prefer to oper-
ate elsewhere. The wall, shutting out undesir-
able characters, causes light fingered servants to
be more cautious about the disappearance of
small things. It makes them responsible for the
things in their charge and insures a minimum
loss to the missionary. The Chinese have a
superabundance of curiosity. Among them-
selves they have little privacy. When they have
been given opportunity, they have crowded into
the mission compound and violated every right
of privacy which Anglo-Saxons hold so dear.
The boundary wall also hedges back the im-
morality and contagions which flourish in every
heathen city. Outside the compound vice and
immodesty walk abroad with shameless publicity.
Year by year smallpox, cholera and fevers sweep
off the Chinese people. The missionary home
has little children growing up within its gates.
Those children have the same rights to moral
purity and protection from contagion which chil-
dren in Christian lands enjoy.
The compound is a haven of rest to the mis-
sionaries. When a long day of conflict with
strange tongue and alien customs has closed,
tired nature demands relaxation for mind and
body. Then this little oasis in the great moral
desert of heathenism becomes a sweet resting
place. It is the missionaries' only refuge. There
THE MISSIONARY COMPOUND 57
with their little ones, the father and mother can
throw ofif the restraint under which they have
been labouring all day and find peace.
The compound walls enclose an acre of
ground, more or less. The home is placed near
the centre. The other buildings are ranged
near the walls. The intervening space is filled
with flowers and vegetable garden, fruit and
shade trees, grape arbours, lawn tennis and cro-
quet grounds. Missionaries endeavour to trans-
plant a counterpart of the home-land surround-
ings into the heart of an alien country. It
makes the burden of the work lighter and bears
a peculiar lesson to the Chinese people.
The boundaries of the place may be very ir-
regular. A grave may be near the edge and
the wall will have to be built around it. Graves
are found everywhere in China. An irrigating
ditch which has to follow the undulations of the
ground may;determine a part of the boundary. A
well dug long ago by a syndicate of neighbours,
may have been placed just on the line. Being
common property, the missionary finds it diffi-
cult to obtain possession of it. It is less nerve-
racking to build an unsightly crooked boundary
wall than to wait for the termination of endless
bargainings and wranglings over rights and prices.
Brick is the cheapest and most enduring build-
ing material obtainable. Those used in the
boundary wall are an inch thick by four inches
58 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
wide and eight inches long. One course is laid
flat ; the next is laid on edge with cross brick for
binding the wall together. This makes a box-
like formation which is filled with broken brick
or mud, making a very enduring and solid wall.
Such a wall costs about three dollars and a half
per ten feet, the contractor furnishing all materials.
The house is built of regular size building
brick. These cost less than four dollars a thou-
sand. They are usually of an ash or smoke
colour but are quite as solid as the American
brick. Ningpo carpenters and masons who have
had large experience in the erection of foreign
buildings, have done most of the building work
in the Yangtse valley. They make contracts to
erect the buildings. They use local men to do the
work, they themselves acting as overseers. The
missionary is usually his own architect. The best
masons and carpenters will receive perhaps
twenty-five cents a day while the common labourer
will be given six cents and his food. The mis-
sionary must watch over every brick and timber
as the contractor will be gone much of the time
and the workmen are past masters in the art of
doing work not according to the plans laid down.
Exactness is a lost art to them.
The missionary home with ground and accom-
panying buildings, will perhaps cost $3,000 in
American money. The plant is the property of
the missionary society and is built with the idea
THE MISSIONARY COMPOUND 59
of permanency. Missionaries may be changed
from station to station as emergencies arise.
They may have to return to their native land by
reason of failing health or may die, but the work
goes on and some one else comes to occupy the
home. The compound and the new church
built up in one of their cities are the two perma-
nent factors on the mission field in China.
It is strange how many servants will gather
about a mission home. There are the cook and
the wash-boy, the gateman and the cow-man,
maybe a house woman and a mail-boy. But
what are the missionaries to do ? The city has
no corner grocery or meat market with telephone
and delivery wagon. There are no laundry man,
coal-yard, dressmaker, hardware or department
store as we know them in the home land. Only
recently has it been that interior places had the
luxury of the imperial post-office. But the whole
retinue of servants do not demand more than is
paid to a single American servant and they
board themselves. The cook is paid about four
dollars a month. The others vary from two to
If a chicken, a fish, or an egg is needed, the
cook must go out on the street and hunt about
until he locates some one who has the article to
sell. Many articles in common use cannot be
found ready made and each must be bargained
for. It takes time to talk price. Commodities
60 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
of which a quantity is needed, must be ordered
in advance and are delivered a little at a time.
It keeps the cook busy. The cooking of food is
the least of his troubles.
The wash-boy washes and irons the clothes (in-
cluding the collars and shirts), cleans the floors
and windows and runs errands. The gateman
keeps out undesirable characters, introduces vis-
itors, hoes in the garden and saws the wood.
The house woman aids in the mending and sew-
ing, does the chamber work and w^atches over
the children in their ramblings.
And the cow-man, what does he do? Why
does a missionary keep cows ? Why does he
not buy milk of the Chinese ? And if he is going
to keep cows why cannot the wash-boy, or the
gateman, or the cook, be persuaded to milk
them? In the first place, the Chinese do not
drink milk, eat butter or milk cows. They use
them for plow animals. In the second place,
there are no fenced lots for pasture. Some one
must watch them while they are feeding lest they
destroy surrounding gardens. In the third place,
Chinese cows have never had their milking
qualities developed and give about as much milk
as a goat, hence a considerable dairy must be
kept to supply milk and butter for an ordinary
family. So many cannot be tied out as might be
done with one cow in an American town. There-
fore, some one must be delegated to look after the
THE MISSIONARY COMPOUND 61
cows, some one whose perpetual business is to
care for them. There are between ten and
twenty head of big and little cattle in the mis-
sionary's ordinary herd.
But if a goat will give as much as a cow, why
not keep goats? Some missionaries do and
they find them as troublesome as a herd of cows.
The only difference is the amount of money in-
vested. The Chinese eat pork and very little
beef. One tires of chicken and fish when these
become the daily diet. When the Chinese do
have beef for sale it is that of an animal that has
grown too old for service. So each winter, from
his own herd, the missionary can supply this lack
and know the quality of the meat he is eating.
The truth is, condensed milk and canned but-
ter (oleomargarine) cost as much as the entire
expense of a dairy, including the wages of the
cow-man. Pasture costs little. During the short
winter months one only needs stables, some rice
straw and a little grain. During the summer the
cow-man's wages are the only expense.
The Chinese have no tomatoes, cabbages,
cauliflower, beets, parsnips or squashes. Neither
have they grape-vines or berry bushes. These
readily grow in the Chinese soil and it is a
pleasure and profit to introduce them. They
have figs, little yellow cherries, persimmons,
pomegranates, pears and peaches, but even these
are rarely all seen in one region, — except by the
62 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
work of the missionary. So the compound be-
comes an exhibit of horticulture, bearing its les-
son to the Chinese and ministering to the health
of the missionary family.
Sweet-williams, pansies, carnations and many
other of our flowers were never seen in China
until the missionary planted them there. When
shade and fruit trees dot the yard, foreign and
native flowers deck its borders and a lawn
spreads over the intervening space (the Chinese
never have lawns), the place becomes a beautiful
soothing prospect to the heart and eyes of the
dwellers there. // is home.
The brick, the cows, and the servants are
Chinese, to be sure, but all the remainder are
matters of wonderful curiosity to the Chinese vis-
itors who flock into that yard. The garden, the
arrangement of the place, the plans of the house,
even the timber in the house are foreign produc-
tion. The matched flooring, doors, windows,
joists and great roof timbers all grew on the
slopes of Oregon and California. The Chinese
have denuded their hills until they have very
little valuable timber. Oregon pine is shipped
to Shanghai in the form of great timbers. From
there it is freighted up the Yangtse and rafted to
interior points. It occupied many days of time
for the Chinese sawyers with their slow method
of hand labour to turn those timbers into doors
THE MISSIONARY COMPOUND 63
But nothing pleases the natives better than the
flowers. They look into the face of an innocent
pansy and turning to the missionary ask, *' Where
did you get them? Do you raise them from
seed ? Is there any place we can buy the seed ?"
We dig up a pansy, root and all, place it in the
hands of the eager questioner and watch as it
starts on its mission. The tiny flower is taken to
a home where its strange face is viewed by all
who come into the place. By and by the re-
ceiver comes back. In his hands, or the hands
of a servant, is borne a rose-bush, a chrysanthe-
mum, or other native flower. A heart has been
opened to the influence of the Gospel and the
key was a pansy blossom.
A poor old gardener comes frequently into our
compound and moves among the curious flowers
and shrubbery. He is a flower lover but he
never asks for plants unless there are more than
we will use. He never forgets the obligation.
When some one in the foreign home is sick he
will bring a full blooming aster, dahlia or zinnia.
In the quiet of the evening we will sit on the rude
bench at the door of his little hut and tell him of
the One who loved the lilies and flowers of the
Another feature of the compound in the in-
terior are the horses and donkeys When jour-
neys are to be taken, it is not easy to hire suit-
able animals. So many are sore-backed and un-
64 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
derfed. So the missionary must keep his own.
While not in use upon the road, the donkeys be-
come perambulators for the mission children.
There are no smooth walks and streets upon
which buggies and wagons can roll. Thus the
donkey is brought into requisition and the chil-
dren learn to ride before they are able to walk.
The little two-year old baby, who is learning to
speak Chinese as fast as she is lisping English,
will go on a hunt for her favourite among the
servants. '* Lao Wang, O yao chii lii-dz " (Old
Wang, I want to ride the donkey), is her call.
When she finds the man she will lead him to the
stables and stand by while he fastens the basket-
like saddle onto the donkey's back. Then she
will reach up her arms to him and he will put her
upon her throne. He is her abject slave and she
is his little queen. They would risk their lives
for these little ones.
Do the missionaries eat with a bowl and chop-
sticks ? Is the food cooked in Chinese style ?
Just as it has been found unwise to live in the low,
damp, unhealthy Chinese houses, so it has been
demonstrated that it is better to eat food prepared
similar to that which has been eaten in the home
land. Missionaries learn to like an occasional
meal cooked in Chinese style and the children
enjoy it even more than the parents. Upon the
itinerating journeys Chinese food is eaten exclu-
sively. But the daily fare is the same as in the
THE MISSIONARY COMPOUND 65
home land. The cook receives his education in
the preparation of foods from the missionary-
wife. He becomes proud of his ability to turn
out foreign dishes. On special days like Thanks-
giving and Christmas, he is in his glory. There
will be company. He will have an opportunity
to reveal to them his skill in preparing food which
their servants cannot produce. Does it not all
bring glory to his mistress who has taught
The garden, dairy and street furnish many
things for the table. In the open ports, along the
rivers and coast, Chinese have opened what are
called compradore stores in which can be pur-
chased many kinds of foreign goods. A servant
and a donkey can be sent to these points for
things lacking in the larder. The main things
like sugar, salt, vinegar, canned goods, spices,
breakfast foods, etc., are bought in large quanti-
ties in Shanghai or by mail order from America.
These stores are arranged upon the shelves in the
lock room and stand ready for any emergency.
Missionaries upon evangelizing trips or visiting
other stations, visitors from across the seas study-
ing missions, businessmen, railroad surveyors and
government representatives are among the visitors
who drop in upon the mission home at interior
points. A glad welcome awaits them all. Vis-
itors do not come that way every day. The lock
room is made to yield up its secrets and in a litde
66 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
time the visitors, be they two or ten, are called
to a well-spread table.
Somewhere about the place is likely to be found
a workshop. It may be in the attic or in some
side building. It is the magician's secret room
from which are produced corner couches, little ta-
bles, playthings for the children, window-seats,
stools and other little articles so necessary in the
house. Boxes which have brought goods from
across the ocean, disappear into this workshop.
They are carefully taken apart. That rough box
lumber is precious in China. The same carpen-
ters who built the house can make articles of fur-
niture. Other pieces are bought in Shanghai and
a few choice articles have come from the home
land. But out of those boxes come the little de-
tails which add to the convenience of the place.
Perhaps a local carpenter has been taught how to
produce these odd pieces and thus relieve the
busy missionary, — but more of that in another
THE MISSIONARY HOME AS AN
THE Christian home, planted in the midst
of heathenism, is one of the greatest
evangelizing agencies known to Chris-
tian missions. It is an exhibit of Christian
civilization. The Christian man and woman,
who occupy the missionary home, stand before
God and their fellow men as equals. They find
in each other's society, companionship and fel-
lowship. They are capable of mutually counsel-
ling and advising. Their every relationship is
marked by the love of Christ. Heathenism has
no such exhibit.
Sometimes there starts a young woman for the
mission field. On board the same outgoing
steamer is a young man who has consecrated his
life to a like purpose. These two meet on board
the steamer, are drawn together by mutual aims,
find enjoyment in discussing their plans and am-
bitions. The old, old story is reenacted upon
that ocean voyage.
When friends in the home land receive the
news of the engagement and marriage of the
68 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
young woman, there is a tendency to criticise
her action. They had sent her out dreaming that
she might become another Miss Agnew who
should mother hundreds of heathen girls. Now
they imagine her usefulness as a missionary is
gone and she will be only a missionary's wife, —
as if in that capacity she could not be a mis-
She has probably done what she ought to have
done. She has linked her life with the man with
whom God intended hers should be linked, and
she is going forward to establish a home which
shall be a living witness of the elevating power
of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Is it not from the
home that light radiates forth to enlighten the
nations, or darkness goes out to enshroud man-
This does not mean that single women are not
needed. They are needed and wonderful is the
part they play in the elevating of heathen woman-
hood. They have freedom to travel and enter
the homes. To them is granted the privilege of
meeting heathenism in its citadel, the heathen
home. But to the married woman is given the
opportunity of revealing to heathenism Christi-
anity in its citadel, the Christian home. Often
she, too, ministers in those darkened homes
and teaches classes of women who come within
her reach but it is in her home where she
reigns as queen. Before this, her throne, even
Missionaries turning aside from their conference to an after-
The author's home in Chu Cheo, China. His dispensary is
seen at the right.
THE MISSIONARY HOME 69
heathenism bows in acknowledgment of the
supremacy of Christianity over other religious
A Christian home is scarcely opened in a Chi-
nese city before it becomes the centre of interest.
Crowds of men and women (they never come
singly) come knocking at the compound door
until the first few months slip away and time has
been found for naught else but entertaining the
visiting neighbours. Everything in that new
home has been minutely investigated. The
smooth level floors, the windows and doors with
their fastenings, the fireplaces, mantels, stoves,
carpets, pictures, chairs, whitewashed walls,
dishes, sewing machine, typewriter, books and
bookcases (even an old Chinese teacher's library
will not have more than forty volumes of books),
the cushions, clean bed linen and comfortable
beds, — these all are marvels of interest to mil-
lions who have been passing like an ever-
flowing stream through the hundreds of Chris-
tian homes planted over the hills and plains of
Every act of the husband towards his wife, or
the wife towards her husband ; the care and at-
tention they give to the children ; the manner in
which the children are corrected and governed,
and the education those children show, are closely
watched and commented upon. They see a
woman who is educated, who has judgment and
70 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
authority in her home, who exacts and receives
love, even as she gives it to her family. It is a
wonderful revelation to the Chinese. That rev-
elation is the force which has revolutionized
China. Armies and navies could not have pro-
duced such a stupendous change.
Suppose we contrast a Chinese home. A
native man and woman never walk on the street
side by side. The family do not sit down to-
gether at the table and eat their food. Men do
not stay around home and enter into pleasant
conversation with their wives. The women are
considered incapable of acting in such a ca-
pacity, — and they are incapable. A Chinese
woman is little more than a child grown tall.
Her only education is that of experience and she
has learned it in an evil school. She has very
little refinement. She knows no other way of
obtaining what she calls her rights than by
secret conniving or open quarrelling. A family
quarrel is carried to the street and the neigh-
bours must be called in to mediate and reconcile
The character used to designate the word
" home " pictures a pig under a roof. That is
all their homes are, merely shelters. Even the
women and the children prefer the open air to
staying within doors. An American farm barn is
more habitable and better constructed than some
of the buildings in which Chinese officials live.
THE MISSIONARY HOME Yl
The majority of their houses have only " mother
earth" as a floor. The donkeys, cows, farm
utensils are intermingled with the family quar-
ters. Beds for men and feeding-troughs for ani-
mals are in close proximity. An easy-chair or a
clean bed is rarely found in a Chinese home.
Glass windows are a recent innovation and only
rich homes display them. What wonder, then,
that the missionary home should be so attractive
and there should spring up in the visitors' hearts
a longing for such comforts and such love in
their own homes ?
They are copying those Christian homes.
Questions are being asked the missionary doctor
concerning hygiene and sanitation. Dirty pools
of water are disappearing from before the front
doors of their homes. Little children are being
dressed more respectably and with due attention
to social purity. One man was rebuking another
for continually quarrelling with his wife.
" Everybody does the same. Why should not
I ? " was the retort.
" The missionaries do not quarrel with their
wives," thoughtfully answered the rebuker.
As we are called to the Chinese homes in our
ministries, we notice little innovations. A baby is
being expected in one place. Ordinarily the Chi-
nese wait until the baby comes, before preparing
the clothing. Why should they do otherwise?
So many babies die at birth. To prepare cloth-
^2 BKEAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
ing and not use it would be a waste. For
the first few days the little one's nest is within
the bosom of its mother's clothing. But in this
home we find them preparing clothing for the
newcomer and even copying the model of the
missionary's baby. They have called the car-
penter to make a cradle that it may have its
own bed instead of having it sleep with its
In another home are found better constructed
chairs. They are also glorying in the possession
of a locally made rocking-chair. A travelling
photographer has passed through the place.
Members of the family or the family group have
sat for pictures and these are framed and hung
on the newly whitewashed walls. Sheets are ap-
pearing upon the beds. Small stoves are creep-
ing into the houses. Teachers are taking news-
papers and other periodicals. Books on modem
subjects are being placed on their shelves.
Influential men among them, after watching
the mission home, have said again and again,
*' May the day soon come in China when we can
have educated and cultured womanhood in our
homes." They are taking practical steps towards
the education of their girls. Mission schools for
girls they loyally support. When told how a man
in America may win a woman to be his wife and
they have contrasted such a method with their
own customs, it has required no argument to
THE MISSIONARY HOME 73
prove to them which is the better way. It is im-
possible in heathen countries to grant the advan-
tages of social intercourse between young people
of opposite sex.
A Chinese rarely sees his wife before she is
bound to him in marriage. She is selected by a
middleman, usually some old woman, whose only
care is to see that the horoscopes of the contract-
ing parties agree and that she gets her fee for ar-
ranging the engagement. The bride is brought
to the home of the bridegroom's parents in a
closed chair. She is completely enveloped by her
red wedding garments. Her face is hidden be-
hind a thick veil. She is met at the door by the
bridesmaids, two old women, who lead her to her
future husband. The prostrations are made, the
intermingled wine drank and the entire ceremony
completed before the bridegroom is allowed to
lead her to the bridal chamber and there lift her
veil and look upon her countenance.
But what difference does that make to a man
living in a land where woman is only regarded as
a necessary appurtenance for the propagating of
the family lineage ? He does not look to his wife
for happiness. She could not be a companion to
him. He will obtain social pleasures in the com-
pany of men. As for her, his mother will look
after her conduct and see that she takes her place
in the economy of the household. That there
could be congenial fellowship between a man and
U BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
his wife was not conceived by them until the mis-
sionary home revealed the fact.
A missionary mother was starting with her
children for the home land. For nearly eight
years she had been amongst the people of that
city. She had been in the homes of the Christians.
Some of the babies had received their first bath
from her hands. The women had come to her
with their troubles when they could not summon
courage to meet the medical missionary. She
had made garments for their children. She had
listened to their wrongs. She had found solu-
tion for many a little difficulty. Even the men
had not been ashamed to learn of her and be
guided by her counsels.
She had watched over the work when her hus-
band would be out on evangelistic tours or meet-
ing the mission committee on business. She had
weighed wood and straw and paid the labourers
who had carried in the load on their shoulders.
They had stood aghast at a woman capable of
doing such a mathematical task. They were cer-
tain no Chinese woman had such ability. She
had presided at her table with culture and ability
when some of the higher classes had visited in
the mission home. They had marvelled at such
refinement in woman.
Now she was returning to her home land. She
had come unbidden to their midst. She was
going away followed by their respect and love.
THE MISSIONARY HOME 75
It was only a mile to the riverside where she was to
take the boat. She had walked that mile many
times. But she was not to walk it this time.
The Christians had called a sedan chair with
bearers. It was the only practical thing they
could do to show their respect.
When the time for starting arrived the chair-
bearers had disappeared. They saw in the af-
fair an opportunity to demand exorbitant fees
and had slipped out of sight until more money
was offered them. When the Christians ap-
prehended the situation they put their own
shoulders under the poles of the chair and carried
that foreign woman to the river bank. Seven
years ago they would not have done that for a
foreigner, be he man or woman.
Upon the river bank they stood and tried to
express their farewell salutations.
"May your whole journey be one of
** May you have joy in meeting your parents
" We will pray for you all the way and may
you pray for us."
** The whole church will be as one pair of eyes
looking for your return."
That is what they tried to say. The tears
covered their cheeks and blurred their eyes.
The unbidden sobs came and choked their utter-
ances. They stood on the bank a silent, sad
76 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
group as the boat slowly swung out into the^
stream and floated away.
** If you want to convince a man let loose a life at him.
Talk is cheap, but the logic of a life is irresistible."
THE GOSPEL THROUGH A BRACE AND BIT
TSIH GWEI-LING drifted into Chu Cheo
providentially. He had spent the best
of his life working along the lines of least
resistance or being led by his impulsive heart.
His career had begun at Wuhu, where, after
Chinese fashion, he had cemented brotherly re-
lations with another young carpenter, named
Bien, to whom he had been drawn. Later he had
eloped with his employer's young wife. His
employer had himself been criminally careless
about his wife as most opium smokers are likely
to be, but that did not excuse Tsih's act.
Tsih settled with his ill-gotten wife in a town
about a week's journey (two hundred miles)
away from Wuhu. There was no danger that
his former employer would follow him or trace
him that far. A position as runner in the official
yamen was secured and with it a living was
sure. He had plenty of idle time on his hands.
It gave him liberty to drift in where anything in-
teresting might be happening.
A mission street chapel had been opened by
some Presbyterian missionaries. Tsih mingled
with the crowds who flocked in to see the for-
78 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
eigners. He came again. The Gospel story in-
terested him and soon his name was on the roll
of enquirers. In due time he became a member
of the church. He did not say anything about
his relations with the woman he called his wife.
He did not see any special connection between
his religion and his general conduct. To him
the Christian doctrine was better than that of
heathenism. The utterances of the Bible con-
cerning future life and the manner of obtaining
it were clear and definite. He was not a student
and did not trouble himself to gain more than a
surface knowledge of the Scriptures. That there
were certain material benefits accruing to those
who held connection with the foreigners and
their religion, was of greater interest to him.
That exception might be taken to certain past
acts of his life did not trouble him. He would
take care that those facts did not reach the
knowledge of the foreigners. When the passion
was on him he still held a position at the gamb-
ling table and played until his last cash was
gone. Any bully looking for a quarrel always
found him ready to stand up for his ** rights."
Why should he not drink wine if he liked it ? So
the missionaries remained in ignorance of some
very important acts in his Hfe's drama.
His wife became sick and, as a sequel went
temporarily insane. She asked to be taken back
to her childhood home near Lu Cheo Fu and as
THROUGH A BRACE AND BIT 7b
it was a sufficient distance from the home of her
first husband, he took her to the place. He
stayed by her, nursed her through all her de-
mentia until health came again. They had
learned to love each other. Perhaps they had
loved each other from their first associations.
Heathenism has so little to make the marriage
tie sacred that they would have seen no wrong
in forming such an attachment.
When she recovered her mental balance he
went back to his carpenter's trade to make a
Hving and, seeking work, drifted into Chu Cheo.
A local carpenter took him on as an assistant.
One day Tsih, in adapting himself to his new
surroundings, discovered that the scrolls on the
door of a neighbour's house, bore evidence of a
connection with the Christian Church. Since he
also had professed to be a Christian, he intro-
duced himself and began to investigate what
amount of material aid he might gain in associ-
ating with the Chu Cheo church. Mr. Wang,
this Christian neighbour, was in our employ and
knew of our need of a carpenter. So he advised
Tsih to bring his wife to Chu Cheo, rent a house,
set up business for himself and await develop-
We did need a carpenter. In a town of ten
thousand people there was not one good one.
Such as there were, could make only rough Chi-
nese furniture. Even the Chinese had to bring
80 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
all their better class of furniture from Nanking.
The work about a mission home was so different
from what they were used to doing that, even
though it guaranteed good pay, they were un-
willing to learn how to do it. Our blinds would
come loose. We needed to have shelving put in
and pieces of furniture made. Small outbuild-
ings must be erected. It was too costly to send
to Nanking for men to make such repairs. We
had no time to do them ourselves. It required
too much time to gain the help of the local men
and outwit their trickery when they did come to
Tsih began attending the Sunday services and,
in course of time, Wang brought him to our
notice. We were told of his connection with the
church, of the sickness through which his wife
had passed and of his coming to town seeking
for work. Wang did not seem to think it neces-
sary to enter extensively into any other features
of Tsih's life. Indeed, it is doubtful if he himself
knew of them.
Tsih came into our study one day. We told
him of our dilemma in getting carpenter work
done and asked him if he were willing, for a
proper compensation, to do work under our
supervision. When we were not using him he
could work elsewhere. Of course he was willing.
We tested him on various little pieces of repair
about the place. He listened to our instructions
THROUGH A BRACE AND BIT 81
and did his work well. Our dry-goods and
grocery boxes he turned into needed pieces of
furniture. We searched catalogues for patterns
and described them to him. We made a paste-
board model of a garden wheelbarrow and gave
the measurements. He turned out an excellent
barrow but came to us for help in making the
wheel. He wanted to put an iron rod through
the axle. The Chinese usually burn such a hole
through with a hot iron. He had been in our
shop and seen us use a brace and bit. For the
first time its possibilities dawned upon him and
he wished to test it in making the hole for the
axle. It worked its way so quickly and smoothly
through the wood that the superiority of some
foreign methods permeated his mind.
That event was the beginning step in his up-
lift. He began to study the pictures of our cata-
logues. He tested the tools we had on hand.
He experimented with a foreign plane iron and
found it would hold an edge better than the
Chinese plane irons. Then he made requests for
the purchase of a saw, hammer, files, screws,
locks and hinges. The quality of his work im-
proved and repaid the extra trouble which the
buying of the tools caused us.
He made a bookcase, typewriter stand, chest
of drawers, beds for the children and a glass case
for surgical instruments. He studied rattan work
and turned out chairs. He learned how to paint
82 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
and put successive coats on the buildings. He
took contracts for the smaller outbuildings and
made a success in their construction. When one
of the schools of western learning in the town
wished to introduce military drill into their ath-
letics, he took the contract for producing wooden
guns of regulation size and shape. Not another
carpenter in the place could have made them.
That is the story of how he became the leading
carpenter in Chu Cheo. Very closely interwoven
with that tale are the successive steps by which
he rose from the place of a nominal Christian to
being a real one. As the brace and bit opened
his eyes to better methods and finer skill in his
trade, so also they paved the way to a more
sympathetic fellowship with Christians and a
deeper appreciation of the Christian life. Prior
to this time there had not come to him the ex-
perience of other men showing an unselfish inter-
est in his welfare. Christianity was revealed in
a new light. He saw the relationship between
brotherhood and true religion.
He seemed to have always had a kindly na-
ture. His voice and manner were pleasing. He
was good to his family. He was a willing
worker. Having declared his connections with
the church, Tsih attended services regularly.
There was a happy fellowship among the circle
of Christians in Chu Cheo and they welcomed
him to it. He closed his business on Sundays
THROUGH A BRACE AND BIT 83
and brought his assistants to church. His wife
came with him and, showing a good life, was
soon a member. A Christian Endeavour society
was organized and Tsih became an active mem-
ber. All was going smoothly on the up grade.
But old habits are not willing to be buried so
easily. Even past records, which we think so
securely hidden, are liable to reappear. Tsih
rented rooms in a building adjoining those occu-
pied by another servant of ours. While the lat-
ter was away on business, a little irritation be-
tween the two households started gossip. A
little difference grew into a matter of great im-
portance. ** Face," so precious to the average
Chinaman, was in jeopardy. Both men became
proudly unyielding. To them a pitched battle
seemed the only solution to the problem. Tsih
had the most conscience in the matter and made
weak attempts to settle the affair but, when the
other servant started the battle, he met him half
It happened very suddenly one morning in
our compound. Drastic measures had to be
taken to bring them back to their senses. The
experiences of the weeks following, when we
were trying to reestablish peace between them,
revealed to us the difference between a good
man and a bad one. We saw that the course of
Tsih's life was going tip ; that of the other man
was hurrying downward. One was slowly
84 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
drifting away into an evil life ; the other was
seeking to overcome the evil of a past life.
Later there came another revelation of Tsih's
past life. As he had prospered since coming to
Chu Cheo, he cast about for some one to aid
him in his growing trade. He bethought him-
self of Bien, the Wuhu carpenter, with whom
years before he had cemented brotherly rela-
tions. They had agreed that should one of them
become prosperous, he should give the other an
opportunity to share in the good fortune. So
Tsih went privately up to Wuhu and sought out his
friend. Bien had not succeeded in his business
and gladly accepted the offer. He brought his
family with him to Chu Cheo.
Both men had married since parting and knew
nothing of each other's wives. When the two
women n^et they found they had also known
each other in previous years. Bien's wife was a
natural gossip and this morsel of knowledge was
too good to keep. All of Tsih's life in Wuhu and
his relation to the woman he called his wife, which
he had thought so securely hid from his associates
in Chu Cheo, came to the surface. It was a hard
blow to receive just when he was on the up grade
to a better life. He loved the woman who had
borne his children and she loved him. Yet,
legally or morally, she was not his wife.
He met the situation manfully. His wife was
put away for a time and of his own free will he
THROUGH A BRACE AND BIT 85
went to Wuhu to, if possible, straighten out the
tangle. Fortunately for the case, the former
opium smoking husband had succumbed to the
drug and was dead. Tsih went to the relatives
of the man and entered into an agreement with
them by which he agreed to pay over to them a
proper sum of money for his wife. In the eyes
of the Chinese world, this action on his part
made her his legal wife.
When he reestablished his home life he was
cleaner and stronger spiritually. He had made
what restitution he could and, once more, looked
the world in the face. His pocketbook was
leaner but he and his wife were happier. In the
blessing which followed, even Bien became a
The mission was opening new resident stations
in Bo-djou and Nantungchow. Some one was
needed who could convert the temporarily rented
Chinese buildings into semi-foreign residences, in
which the new missionaries might dwell. When
residence had been established land would be
purchased and healthful sanitary foreign build-
ings would be erected for permanent occupation.
Local carpenters in those places would not know
how to do the work. General contractors could
not afford to take such contracts. Tsih was asked
for and went out to the larger service. Under
the strain of diflficulties other faults were revealed
in him. He had not become freed from the
86 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
Chinese system of graft. He allowed his quick
temper to pass beyond his control and injured
one of his assistants. When he came to himself
he humbly acknowledged his faults and made res-
titution. Tsih fell but he rose again. That
was the glory of it all. He was not content to
lie in the slough but would climb up again and
seek to cleanse himself of the stains.
His wife became temporarily insane a second
time. He went to great inconvenience to please
her irrational requests and gently cared for her.
He gradually ceased to quarrel. An insulting
landlord struck him with a piece of crockery.
Tsih did not retaliate. He was reviled and he
reviled not again. He made good his word.
He would acknowledge his sin. The Chinese
are so slow to recognize this act of grace.
Slowly he gained the confidence of the Christian
leaders. His life was coming into harmony with
his faith. He studied his Bible and taught it in
his home. Some of his apprentices became
Christians. In leisure time he went with groups
of workers and preached on the streets and in
the homes. When the leaders of the district con-
ference were casting about for a man beyond the
ranks of the evangelists, who could, by character
and ability, fill the position of president to that
body, they found in him their man. Who shall
say that even a brace and a bit may not become
an evangelistic agency ?
THE NEW AGE IN CHINA
THIRTY years ago the first railroad was
built upon Chinese soil. It ran from
Shanghai to Woosung on the sea. It
was a fine sample of the products of civilization.
The Chinese looked at the railroad, thought of
the possibility of its disturbing their dead ances-
tors and, through them, the entire Chinese
economy. They bought it up and cast it into the
sea. A little later they rebuilt it. That railroad
has now been extended inland until it is com-
pleted almost to Nanking, two hundred miles
away. Beyond Nanking surveyors are laying
out lines which, when finished, will connect west-
ward with Hankow and northward with Peking.
Trains are running on a completed railroad con-
necting Hankow and Peking, a distance of seven
hundred and fifty miles. Another railroad be-
tween Hankow and Canton is in process of con-
struction. The Germans have constructed other
roads through the heart of Shantung. Thirty
years has wrought a great change in the atti-
tude of the Chinese towards railroad building.
The old fashioned Chinese soldier is rapidly
88 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
disappearing. An umbrella and a fan made up
part of his equipment and many carried bird-
cages about with them. Upon the front and
back of their uniforms was sewn a circular piece
of bright cloth upon which was inscribed the
name of their company. That circular piece of
cloth made an ideal target. An enemy would
have to be a poor marksman, indeed, if he could
not, at least, wound one of them. The guns,
carried by these soldiers, were those cast off as
obsolete by the European governments. Li
Hung Chang bought them up at a low figure and
sold them to the Chinese government for several
times the price he paid for them. That is one
source from which he obtained his wealth.
It has taken but three years for the viceroys,
Chang Chi-tung and Yuan Shi-kai, to produce a
modern army of 250,000 well-drilled soldiers.
Their maneuvres on the plains of Honan and
Shantung have amazed the army experts of the
world. It seemed an impossible task to produce
so great a change in so short a time. The
Chinese soldiers now march to the sound of
modern military music and are, for the first time
in China's history, singing national songs and
hymns. They are dressed in modern uniform
and carry modern rifles.
The government of Peking has issued an as-
tonishing array of edicts. The queue, that an-
cient badge of servitude to the alien Manchu
THE NEW AGE IN CHINA 89
rulers, is no longer coerced upon the Chinese and
a half million have cut them off. The binding of
the feet of the little girls is becoming less and
less popular. No ofhcial, who now allows it in
his household, will be permitted to hold public
ofBce. The ancient penal codes, under which
criminals were executed in all manner of hor-
rible ways, have been done away. The extortion
of confession in court by torture has also been
abolished. A constitution is being prepared and
a currency system unified and brought under one
One of the most wide-sweeping reforms is the
recent opium edict. The government has de-
creed that within ten years opium must be abol-
ished throughout the empire and its use by the
common people cease. Every farmer must
diminish his present crop annually by one-tenth.
Every smoker must diminish the amount he con-
sumes in a like proportion. No man under sixty
years of age will be allowed to continue its use.
Any official, who persists in smoking the drug,
shall be barred from office and any official, who
shall be able to stamp it out of his district in less
than the allotted time, shall be promoted.
When we consider that there are probably not
less than 40,000,000 who are under the bondage
of the drug in China, we begin to realize the
stupendousness of the task confronting the gov-
ernment. When we consider farther that certain
90 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
unscrupulous foreigners and Chinese have been
putting upon the market in large quantities a so-
called anti-opium pill, which contains morphine,
we see the immense difficulties which confront
the officials in carrying out the edict.
Not long ago three foreigners took a house-
boat trip up the Yangtse River, stopping two or
three weeks before each of the large cities situ-
ated on the banks of that river. In nationality
they represented the three countries of England,
Germany and America. To introduce their
goods among the Chinese they placarded the
walls of those ancient cities with advertisements
of cigarettes and gave away thousands of the
cigarettes to the people.
Those men were representatives of the worst
type of our civilization. Licentious and vile
mouthed, they spent their leisure time in drink-
ing and carousing. Many of those employed in
surveying and engineering the new railroad proj-
ects and the opening of mines, are of a like type
and only accentuate the difficulties in the way of
those progressive Chinese who would transform
Telegraph wires connect all the larger cities in
the empire and the Imperial Post-office is rapidly
opening branches in every portion of the coun-
try. In the last six years one hundred and fifty
newspapers have been started. Peking, the
home of the first daily paper in existence, has
THE NEW AGE IN CHINA 91
now ten daily newspapers and one is published
by a woman for women.
Great publishing houses have sprung up and
are producing uncounted amounts of literature.
Educated men are in great demand for transla-
tion work. Booker T. Washington's book, ** Up
From Slavery," and other similar works are be-
ing translated into Chinese and have a wide
reading. From the Japanese many works on
education, science and philosophy have been put
into the Chinese language. Through this source
the works of Voltaire, Huxley and Spencer have
been introduced and are leading the educated
Chinese from Confucianism to atheism.
Thirteen hundred years ago when Europe was
largely a savage wild and inhabited by our un-
tutored forefathers, China, already civilized, was
inaugurating her wonderful code of education
and civil service examinations. Unchanged they
have come down to the beginning of the present
century. Recent edicts have abrogated this
ancient system and ushered in modern educa-
The extensive examination halls, in the impor-
tant literary centres, have been torn down and
modern school buildings erected in their place.
Other cities throughout the empire have erected
similar modern buildings. They are all being
furnished with the best equipment known to
modern education. Idols are being cast out of
92 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
their temples and destroyed. Desks and black-
boards are taking their places.
A curriculum, modeled after those in other
countries, has been published with the seal of the
emperor and copies have been placed in every
official city. Full explanatory notes accompany
each copy. The course prescribed will carry a
pupil from the kindergarten to the end of a uni-
versity training. By the help of the missionaries
and Japanese educators, a series of school books
to match the prescribed course, has been hur-
ried into existence and publishers are rushed to
supply the demand. One official in West China
was so anxious to begin operations at once, that
he ordered the books by telegraph (a much more
expensive proceeding than in wire-bound America)
and ordered that they be sent by mail. It cost
him nearly two hundred dollars for postage but
the books reached him in a third of the time re-
quired for the slow moving Chinese freight
Schools are being opened for girls as well as
boys. In some places little children of both
sexes attend school side by side. In other
places separate schools are opened for the girls.
Under the patronage of the Empress Dowager a
lama's temple in Peking has been appropriated
for a girls* school and no bound-footed girl is al-
lowed to attend its sessions.
The demand for qualified teachers has been
THE NEW AGE IN CHINA 93
far in excess of the supply. Graduates of mis-
sion schools have found positions with large sal-
aries awaiting them. Japanese have been called
to many of the positions but so many of them
have been second and third rate men that they
have not been universally satisfactory. The
Chinese are sending the brightest of their young
men to Japan to studv western learning. They
have been going over at the rate of five hundred
a month. In Tokio alone there are fifteen thou-
sand Chinese students. Something like fifty
thousand Japanese are in China at the present
time. It is easy to see how Japan is gaining
the preponderance of power in the empire.
Because of the impossibility of obtaining an
adequate supply of capable teachers for the new
schools, confusion has reigned within. Chinese,
who knew almost nothing about the subjects they
were supposed to teach, have deceived those in
authority and brought reproach upon the
schools. Men who have not spent six months
upon the language, have held the position of
teacher of English.
Such unsatisfactory conditions have brought
about a reaction in favour of the mission schools
and colleges. Influential men have brought
their children to our schools and plead that they
might be accepted. They have willingly paid
all expenses and made no stipulations as to reg-
ulations and courses of study. When faced
94 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
with the possibiHty of their children becoming
Christians they have, in instances, declared their
willingness that their children should become
converts to the Gospel. A number of men in
high positions are Christians. The admiral of
the Chinese fleet in the Yangtse waters is such a
man and his sons are being educated in Chris-
Educated Chinese of the old school who have
been foremost in bringing about the new era,
find the conditions have progressed beyond their
leadership. The theory of the new education
they have learned through the papers and mag-
azines. But its application is incomprehensible
to them. They have never seen a modern
school in working order and they have no nor-
mal schools in which they might learn the ap-
plication of the methods. They are too old to
enter school themselves.
In the interior they are appealing to the only
one capable of aiding them, the missionary. To
him they are coming. For the first time in the
history of China missions, the door to the edu-
cated classes is wide open. Atheists, though
these leaders are, they have placed themselves
under Christian influence for the sake of being
able to cope with the present crisis. They have
willingly studied the Scriptures along with their
secular studies and some are being turned to a
belief in the One God.
THE NEW AGE IN CHINA 95
Among other edicts which the throne has been
issuing is one making Sunday a legal holiday.
It applies with special force to the new schools
and the new army. These men are seizing all
possible opportunities to gain a knowledge of
things western. Whole schools of students and
companies of soldiers have walked into the
Christian chapels and churches on Sunday morn-
ing. Chou-fu, when governor of Shantung, be-
gan the work of introducing the Bible among
officials. He said that ignorance of the Bible
had been the cause of all past trouble between
the Chinese and foreigners. He demanded of
the officials under him, that they should make a
careful study of the Bible in order to an under-
standing of the missionary propaganda. When
he became viceroy at Nanking he sent an-
other order for Bibles to the American
Bible Society and distributed them among the
officials within his jurisdiction. Other men
in authority have adopted the suggestion and
have placed the Bible in the new schools as
a text-book in order that the rising genera-
tion may not make the mistakes their fathers
In the six years following the Boxer uprising
Christian missions in China have received an un-
precedented number of converts. Over fifty
thousand have been gathered in within that
time, a third of the entire Chinese Christian
96 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
Church. The record of these six years is greater
than that of the first sixty years following the ar-
rival of Robert Morrison in China. In 1806
when he entered Canton, he was opposed by
both the Chinese and foreign tradesmen. He
lived in a cellar. A curtain had to be hung be-
fore the one window of his quarters to hide the
light of his candle. In secrecy he learned the
language, translated the Scriptures and produced
that stupendous work, the dictionary of the
Chinese language. When after six years of
labour he had the joy of baptizing his first con-
vert, this, too, had to be done in secret. Upon
the mountain side, in a pool made by the moun-
tain stream, out of the sight and hearing of men,
he baptized into the name of the Father, Son and
Holy Spirit, the first Chinese won by Protestant
Last year in that same city fifteen hundred
Chinese Christians met together and pledged
seven thousand and five hundred dollars towards
the erection of a Morrison memorial building.
One hundred years has wrought the change.
Through all of that time missionaries have been
beating away at the seemingly impregnable walls
of China's exclusiveness. Men and women have
laid themselves down upon the altar of service,
laboured and died for China. Before that un-
ceasing attack those walls have crumbled and
fallen. The answer to a hundred years of prayer
THE NEW AGE IN CHINA 97
has come and China is prepared to receive the
*' The Lord shall sever the sea ;
And open a way in the wilderness
To faith that follows, to feet that press
On into the great To Be.
The Lord shall sever the sea."
WORKING WITH THE NEW ELEMENT
ABOUT the time that the ancient system
of education in China was being abol-
ished by the government, an oppor-
tunity presented itself for opening a day-school
in Chu Cheo. Some years before the mission
had operated a school in that city, but it was in
the days when the Chinese were antagonistic to
all things foreign and the pupils who came to the
school were from the indigent classes. Even
they would have refused to come had not
tuition, books and schoolroom equipment been
furnished free. It would have been found im-
possible to have introduced into the school mod-
ern school methods.
The conflicts with foreign nations in which
China had involved herself, together with the
Russian-Japanese War, have produced a com-
plete change in the attitude of many Chinese lead-
ers. When the educational edict was sent out
from the throne, it found the leaders ready to re-
ceive it. We would have had as great difficulty
in opening our new day-school on the old Chinese
lines as would have been experienced in the first
THE NEW ELEMENT 99
school opened there had the missionaries at-
tempted at that time to introduce modern
However, we found another stumbUng-block
in the road. The Chinese were seeking to open
modern schools for themselves and were not
anxious to patronize the missionaries. We fur-
nished a building in an attractive manner with
blackboards and maps. A graduate of a mis-
sion college was obtained as teacher. Adver-
tisements were posted announcing the opening
of the school and soliciting students. The
teacher occupied the building for a half month
with one lone pupil.
Just at the time when it appeared that the
school would be a failure two men, twenty-five
and thirty years of age, paid us a visit. Mr.
Djang was from a near-by country district.
Young as he was, he had been called by his dis-
trict to the place of chief counsellor or elder. He
was a fine example of what a strong belief in
Confucian ethics can do for a man. He was a
perfect gentleman. Mr. Hwang, the second
man, was the youngest son of one of Chu Cheo's
wealthiest homes. Both of his older brothers had
successively occupied the position of chief coun-
sellor in the town. One of them was at the time
connected with a reform newspaper. The entire
family are in sympathy with the new movement
in China and recendy opened in their own home
100 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
a modern day-school in which boys and girls are
admitted on equal basis.
'' You do not seem to be able to obtain a suffi-
cient number of children for your day-school.
What would you think of our enrolling as stu-
dents ? Your teacher is capable of instructing us
in modern studies. We are too old to enter our
government new schools and yet, if we are to re-
tain our places as leaders in this new era, we must
become conversant with western learning," was
the plea of these young men to us.
**You can yourself see," they continued in
their earnestness, *'that we cannot continue as
leaders unless we know how to lead. And if we
do not continue as leaders, China will become
disordered and confused and fail in her attempts
to reform. We, who have the only education
China has ever given the people, must lead in
the search for modern education. We need
your help. Will you not teach us ? "
It was a new plea from a new source. Never
before had the educated classes expressed any
desire to learn of the missionary. These young
men were willing to pay all expenses, see to their
own board and observe any necessary regula-
tions. We did not, could not, refuse such a plea
and thus began our work with the influential
classes in our district.
Their coming at once attracted attention to
file school. It was not long before ten young
A group of influential Chinese who studied with the authoi
Chinese school children at the Clui Cheo dispensary.
THE NEW ELEMENT 101
men and ten children were enrolled. It was
beyond the limit of one teacher's ability to handle
such a school and we were compelled to take
time from our medical and evangelistic work and
aid in this new field.
The question of religious instruction confronted
us from the beginning. In a day-school for chil-
dren the day's session was ordinarily opened with
religious exercises. The reading of the Scrip-
tures and prayer must necessarily be an important
feature as we are primarily in China to Chris-
tianize her people. But these young men were
not idolaters but atheists. They were students
of Voltaire, Huxley and Darwin. Would we be
able to win them to Christ by arbitrarily com-
pelling them to daily repeat the Lord's prayer
and sing hymns ?
" When one does not know what to do, it is
better to wait." We studied the problem and
prayed over it. Such a school was a new ven-
ture and had no precedent by which it could be
guided. It is often easier to drive a man away
from Christ than to win him to Christ. We
wanted to win them.
It was surprising how the subject of religion
would constantly arise in the class room. The
young men were in an enquiring state of mind.
In the study of geography they saw that where
heathenism reigned, there was also barbarism
and savagery. In those countries where Christ
102 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
was being exalted, civilization and learning were
making the greatest progress. In the most
natural way we would find ourselves discussing
together comparative religions and the relation
between religion and social progress.
Still the Scriptures, as such, were not being
recognized in the school and we came to the con-
clusion that, to be true to our mission, the Bible
must have its place in the daily work. We told
them that, since our business in China was to
preach Christ, we could not carry on the school
unless we were given freedom to bring the Bible
before them. We did not wish to force Chris-
tianity upon them but they should be willing to
search for truth wherever it might be found.
We would recognize it when found in their Con-
fucian classics. They should be willing to ac-
cept it when found in the Christian Scriptures.
The first effect of the announcement was the
shrinkage of the class of young men from ten to
three, — but they were the best three. The others
showed a greater anxiety to be popular with
their fellow men than to become leaders of the
reform movement. Their coming into the school
had already brought down upon themselves the
taunt of following the foreigner. If it should be
known that they were reading the foreigner's
Bible, the situation would become unbearable.
So, with finely veiled excuses for absenting
themselves, they withdrew from the school
THE NEW ELEMENT 103
The three who remained included the two men
who first entered the school. These voluntarily
drew up a few statements in which they ex-
pressed themselves willing to read and discuss
the Bible, abstain from opium and wine and up-
hold a perfect moral standard while in the
So began our battle between atheism and
Christianity. Since their language is full of
classical sayings, they found wonderful pleasure
in reading the book of the Proverbs and com-
paring their own pithy sayings. When Genesis
was read and the discussion as to the possibility
and probability of a Creator and Guiding Hand
being back of this universe was introduced for
the first time in this ministry, we were called
upon to prove the existence of a God.
Exodus was read and the beginnings of law
was brought to their attention. Then the New
Testament was searched to find what Christ and
Paul had to say on the same subject. When the
young men proposed for the next readings a
study in the life of Christ, we felt that we were
During all this time there had appeared a re-
luctance on the part of the young men to attend
the church services. Those who have been won
in times past, have been largely from the com-
mon and uneducated class of Chinese. The
services had to be suited to their understanding.
104 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
These educated young men found very little at-
traction for themselves in such a meeting.
To meet this difficulty an hour on Sunday
mornings was set apart in which we could meet
with them and more definitely discuss religious
and moral questions. They willingly prepared
essays on idolatry, pauperism, ancestral worship,
the existence of life after death, the existence of
God and kindred subjects. A discussion of the
paper would follow and sometimes the following
Sunday would be devoted to answering some of
the vital questions they had introduced.
Once, when the question of the possibility of
the origin of all matter by chance was being dis-
cussed, we told them that if they could persuade
the common people of the inertness of idols and
take away from their hearts all reverence and fear
of things spiritual, China would have a counterpart
of the French Revolution within her borders. Fear
of demons does more to hold the Chinese people
in subj ection than all temporal authority. Let that
fear be removed, and worship of nothing else be
substituted, and the common people would rise
immediately against the oppression of their rulers.
The young men saw the logic of the statement.
" Can it be, then," they asked, *' that Christ
saw this longing of the human heart for an ob-
ject of worship, this longing for an after life in
which rewards and punishments would be justly
meted out, and so originated the Christian system
THE NEW ELEMENT 105
of religion?" They soon saw the utter impos-
sibility of originating false history without its
being refuted by men of the same age. In a
carefully written paper, given shortly after, they
accepted the existence of life after death and
stepped out of the ranks of atheists.
Meanwhile they were invited to social lunches
and parties in our homes. They enjoyed the
foreign doughnuts, coffee and cake. They en-
tered heartily into games and informally dis-
cussed sociology. The vision of educated. Chris-
tian womanhood presiding over the home life
made a strong impression upon them. They en-
tered into conversation with missionary mothers.
Customs in regard to courtship and marriage
were discussed. They were getting acquainted
with women whom they could honour and re-
spect. There was being born within them a
hunger to be pure in heart. Social purity was
being placed on a new and higher basis. That
social reform should become a part of China's
new era had not impressed them before.
They sat down with us at the table. They
heard the blessing of God asked upon the meal.
They were guests at a table around which were
gathered the entire family. They were learning
the use of the knife and fork. At the same time
they were gaining a knowledge of home life,
which was vitalized by the presence of God.
They saw its effects in ennobling man and
106 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
woman, in beautifying child life. They had been
studying Christianity in the Scriptures. They
saw its supremacy over other religious systems
demonstrated in the missionary's home.
The school continued for two years. Other
young men came in and joined the three who
had remained with the school. Those who had
left asked to be allowed to reenter but the time
for furlough was at hand and the school had to
be closed. Had we effected any change in the
life and thought of those young men ? We
longed to know and one day asked the question,
" What do you think of the Scriptures ?"
'' We find no fault or untruth in them," was
the unhesitating, though obscure, Chinese answer.
'* Do you believe there is a God?"
Note their reply. *' We have not seen Him,
nor heard His voice. But we know there must
be a carpenter back of a table or chair. We
should not show ourselves to have wisdom if, in
face of all the orderliness and harmony in this
world, we did not believe that back of the tree,
the summer and winter, the storm and the sun-
shine, the swinging of the worlds in space, there
is a Creator, a Great Orderer."
Not long ago Mr. Djang said, " When I began
studying western learning, I thought that that was
what China needed to become like other nations.
Now I know that the Gospel must accompany
the learning if China would become truly great"
SEEKING FOR STRAWS OF HOPE
THERE has been much talk in the past
about " The Light of Asia," and the
ethical code of Confucius. Men have
deplored missionary activity among the Orientals,
saying that they had religions of their own and
it was not right to force an alien religion upon
them ; that they were living up to the light they
have and would probably be judged by that
The fact is the nations of the Orient are not
living up to the standard of their religions and
they themselves keenly realize it. They have
sinned against the God or gods revealed to them
by these systems of religion and, being without
a Redeemer, have found themselves without a
straw of hope.
The most pathetic thing about heathenism is
the constant groping in the dark for some way
out of the pit into which sin has cast them. The
failure to live up to their moral standards has
brought upon them an abject fear of demons,
and a desperate seeking for means to propitiate
them. Sickness, drought, famine, fire, flood and
death itself, are believed to be inflicted upon
108 BREAKING DOAVN CHINESE WALLS
them by demoniacal powers. Their religious ac-
tivities consist in being careful not to anger the
demons, in seeking to deceive them, trying to
ward them off or propitiate them. The measures
they use to bring about these ends are largely of
a material nature.
Within their walled cities very rarely will a
street run directly from one gate through the
city to a gate on the opposite side. The demons
might enter a gate and, sweeping through in a
straight line, entirely destroy the place. But it
is supposed that they are unable to turn sharp
corners. So up in the heart of the city, one
street ends abruptly against a solid wall and one
must turn a sharp angle and cross to another
street before reaching the one that passes out the
The people erect a screen just within the
front door of their homes. It effectually hides
from public view the interior of the home, but,
more important, it furnishes a sharp angle as a
barrier to the possible entrance of evil spirits.
Upon the brick chimney of their cooking range
each New Year they paste the picture of the
kitchen god. He is supposed to watch over the
conduct of the members of the family. He sees
all their wrangling, hears all the gossip and
knows all their deeds, good and evil. At the
end of the year they take him down from his
place and burn the paper upon which his picture
SEEKING FOR STEAAVS OF HOPE 109
is printed. He is supposed in this manner to
return to his master in the spirit world and ren-
der an account concerning the conduct of the
household. The family are keenly aware of the
evil record they have made and so, lest the
kitchen god tell it all, they take a little honey or
molasses and smear it on the picture over his
mouth. This will compel him to tell a sweet tale
about their actions for the year.
A company idly enter a temple and sit down
to gamble. Lest the idol see them doing this
evil deed, they bind a cloth about his eyes
and then gamble on in peace. When, after long
pleadings and many offerings, an idol does not
respond to the request of the worshipper, the
people have been known to bore a hole in the
back of the idol and place therein a live scorpion
to wake up the idol.
A little baby boy coming to a home finds a
welcome. Not so with a little girl. The boy is
necessary to the perpetuation of the family name.
A girl goes to another home and will do nothing
to continue the posterity of the line from which
she has sprung. Hence the boy is looked upon
with importance and the girl as a burden. The
Chinese believe the powers of darkness recognize
this distinction. A demon, naturally, when strik-
ing a home would aim at the most vulnerable
point. The boy is that vulnerable point. So
endeavour is made to deceive the demons by
110 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
disguising the boy as a girl. Girls wear ear-
rings. Invariably in the ear of the first born boy
is hung an earring. Sometimes the boy is
dressed in girl's clothes and given a girl's name.
To many the Chinese worship of ancestors and
their filial piety has seemed a beautiful ceremony.
It is a beautiful ceremony^ but it is not much more
than that. In most cases it has degenerated to
a fear lest the spirits of the parents come back
and bring calamities upon impious children. In
the spring-time a woman goes out to a grave
and sitting down beside it, begins to weep and
lament. There is no sorrow in her mourning.
It is mere form. Men burn incense, imitation
money, and candles at the graves of their dead
parents. They did not trouble themselves about
the wishes of their parents when the latter were
living. They would not worship at their graves
now, did they not fear the power of invisible
spirits. *' The letter killeth ; it is the spirit that
There are uncounted suicides in China. They
are an inheritance from Buddhism. The people
have been taught that the spirit of a murdered
man can come back and curse his slayer. Abuse
or outrage a person in life and calamity will fol-
low the culprit after the death of the injured
party. Women whose lives have been made un-
bearable ; men who have been trodden under
the feet of one stronger ; those who have no other
SEEKING FOR STRAWS OF HOPE Hi
resource for redress will obtain a sufficient
amount of opium and, going to the door-step of
the one who has wronged them, publish abroad
the wrong committed by dying there. In one
city of five thousand people in one year there
were not less than fifty suicides. The misery of
their present lot and the desire for revenge so
possesses their souls that even the fear of death
is lost. What a commentary upon Oriental re-
The retrogression of the Chinese nation can
be traced to this fear of demons. Their fathers
followed certain customs and methods and the
nation was prosperous. Would that not argue
that such customs and methods were satisfactory
to the powers of darkness ? It were safer to fol-
low in the footsteps of their fathers than to ex-
periment with new methods which might arouse
the anger of demons. Coal mines, railroads, new
machinery, deepening of canal beds, all are un-
tried operations and might invite calamity. It
were wiser to abide by the ancient methods than
to invite disaster.
This fear of demons has made China, like all
heathen countries, a breeding ground for all
manner of superstition, quackery and exorcism.
Fortune-tellers and charlatans have grown rich
by playing upon the imagination of the people.
The locating of lucky spots for graves, the direc-
tion towards which the front door of the home
112 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
should face, the determination of a lucky day
upon which to begin a journey or have a wed-
ding, all call for the presence of such men.
Li Hung Chang, great a man as we have con-
sidered him, when he wished to fix the location
for a family burying ground, appealed to a for-
tune-teller. The inhabitants of a near-by market
town heard of the matter. They saw an oppor-
tunity to aid the great statesman in unloading
a part of his enormous wealth and made a league
with the fortune-teller. The graveyard was
located directly across the main road leading
into their market town. Li Hung Chang bought
the spot at a great price. Travellers going to
the market town must now make a circuit
around the burying ground in order to reach the
place, but the city elders fattened their pocket-
books in the deal.
In one home to which the charlatan had
been called to locate the proper burial spot, re-
verses came to the family in rapid succession.
They called back the man and since he had
guaranteed to select a lucky place, demanded of
him that he make good his guarantee. He re-
visited the spot and made farther investigations.
He found that luck had departed from the place
since he had selected it and offered to find a
better piece of ground, — for a consideration, and
the family paid it.
A mother is deluded into the belief that the
SEEKING FOR STRAWS OF HOPE 113
spirit of a dead babe may at times be coaxed
back to the body from which it has departed.
In the evening twilight one may see a basket
sitting by the side of an earth-god shrine. From
a httle distance away the voice of the bereaved
mother comes floating to our ears. " Little
Love, come back, come back." The basket
contains a little garment and some appetizing
food. Will not the sight and smell of things
familiar to the little one bring it back to its
former surroundings and cause it to enter the
body once more? Oh, the hopelessness of the
heathen mother's cry !
There came to a Chinese home three girls in
succession. They longed for a boy. What
heathen home does not ? The fourth baby came
and their cup of happiness was full, for it was a
boy. The many-coloured eggs, announcing the
happy event and calling for the congratulations
of the neighbours, were sent to every home on
the street. The baby grew for six months into
a fat chubby boy, then suddenly it died. There
was a world of helpless despair in the voice of
the father as he took the beloved little form into
his arms and wailed out his woe. " Oh, my
flesh, my bone, my life, my baby boy ! "
In the darkness of the night he took the little
body and buried it without a single funeral rite.
He believed a demon had come to his home and
cursed it. After that first cry of anguish he went
114 BEEAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
on with his business and no word of the loss could be
drawn from his lips. How could he do otherwise?
He stood in abject fear lest the demon should
return and bring other calamity upon his home.
This fear of demons explains the inordinate
love of the Chinese for wealth. Wealth and
happiness with him are synonymous. Why
should they not be ? With money he can buy
up opportunities for graft. He can purchase
official position. He can distort justice and
escape punishment. He can build about his
home and life a wall that will keep out retribu-
tion, the inquisitiveness of official parasites and
even the swift and terrifying vengeance of a
united clan of poorer folk.
Considering that hell is very similar in organi-
zation to the Chinese yamen, why can he not
purchase his way through purgatory and make
a final escape into the realms of eternal bliss ?
When one becomes so great as a viceroy or
prince he may even buy from the emperor the
title of a god and not only escape any possible
punishment in the after world but at once be
raised to a position of honour and power where
he may still farther influence the destiny of men
who live after him. Then get money and, while
getting it, get plenty. So the Chinese learn to
walk over the prostrate forms of their brothers
for gold and make suffering-stricken humanity
a ladder by which they may ascend to heaven itself.
SEEKING FOR STRAWS OF HOPE 115
In the face of these time-honoured customs
and ingrained beUefs, it has been a superhuman
task to impress the Chinese with the value of a
better way. Yet the changes now taking place
in the empire show it not to be an impossible
task. The missionary has been compelled to
recognize the attitude of the people towards their
religious beliefs. He has had to acknowledge
his own inability to change the conditions.
Nothing short of the power of God could have
broken down these Chinese walls. It required
the constant manifestation of that infinite power
in the living missionary to affect the wonderful
Missionary homes, erected for comfort and
convenience, unhampered by superstitious dread
of danger hovering about changes in archi-
tecture; haunted and unlucky buildings of
their own, rented by missionaries and success-
fully used for chapels and schools, have made
the people doubt the power of evil spirits. Land
for Chinese Christian cemeteries has been pur-
chased without the aid of the fortune-teller.
Lectures in chemistry, experiments with elec-
trical apparatus, modern surgery and medicine,
the use of the microscope, have revealed to the
Chinese hitherto undreamed of forces with which
demons have no relationship and have proven
master agencies in obtaining a favourable hear-
ing for Christianity.
DO THE CHINESE CONVERTS MAKE SINCERE
TWO mistakes are being made concern-
ing the type of Chinese who compose
the rank and file of converts. For-
eigners who are unfriendly towards Christian
missions declare that there is not a sincere Chi-
nese Christian convert, while supporters of Chris-
tian missions have received an impression that a
convert from heathenism becomes at once a stead-
fast, enthusiastic, spirit-filled follower of Jesus
Christ. Both parties are wrong.
Opposers of Christian work in China are found
among steamship officers, keepers of hotels and
other business men whose own lives are inimical
to Christianity. These men disparage the work
of missionaries and say that they are living lux-
uriously in fine houses and doing more harm
among the natives than good. Many sincere
Christian business men are found in the mercan-
tile centres of China who are loyal supporters of
mission work, but it is a sad commentary on
civilization that large numbers, who leave their
own lands to engage in business in the Orient,
have gone into voluntary banishment from their
CHINESE CONVERTS 117
native lands, because their evil lives made living
among old associates obnoxious. The spirit of
restless adventure has led them to seek a place
where they might cast morality to the winds.
The influence of these men among the heathen
is one of the worst obstacles against which mis-
sionaries must batde. It is not strange that such
men see nothing in Christian missions worthy of
But have Christians in the home land the right
to expect that a Christian born out of heathenism
shall at once become a perfect moral character,
an achievement which has been found impossible
of accomplishment even among converts in civ-
ilized lands ? Back of the American extends a
long line of Christian ancestry reaching into the
dim past. Back of the Chinese convert is a clear
line traceable many times farther, a line per-
petually enshrouded in paganistic darkness.
Surrounding the convert from heathenism are
gathering still idolatrous influences, holding him
down and clouding his mind and heart. The
new Christian in America finds himself sur-
rounded with all the elevating influences of a
Christian nation. Let us be just to the Christian
born out of heathenism and not expect too great
a change in him at first.
Physicians say the proper way to treat a sick
person is to have begun with his grandparents.
A missionary acknowledges the same truth in
118 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALI^
the laws of heredity, when he speaks of the
superiority of a second and third generation
Christian over one just born out of heathenism.
When a Chinese has been enrolled in the
membership of the church, he has merely placed
himself in a position in which he may begin to
imbibe the spirit of the Gospel. He is giving the
missionary an opportunity to mould another dis-
torted life into the image of Christ. The new
Christian must be fed as a babe. The mission-
ary is given access to his home and family. The
connection between religion and life can be
taught him. Clean language, kindness towards
one's children, parents, wife and servants ; the
value of prayer and family worship, of rest on
the Lord's day and worship with His people ; the
education of children, necessity of living at peace
with one's neighbours ; all these lessons can now
be taught to the new convert with the possibility
of his seeking to do them.
To the medical missionary comes the privilege
of instructing the new babe in Christ concerning
the desirability of observing the laws of hygiene,
sanitation, quarantine and preservation of health.
These whose lives have been so evil must needs
be rebuked many times in regard to gambling,
graft, lying, stealing and quarrelling with neigh-
bours. They must be taught social purity and
enlightened upon the grace of giving. Over and
over must these lessons be given. In summer
CHINESE CONVERTS 119
heat and winter cold, on the road, in the home
and in the Lord's house must the missionary be
instant in season and out of season, rebuking, ex-
horting and encouraging. It is so hard for them
to connect conduct and rehgion, to understand
that Christliness is living like Christ.
The miracle of missions is that some so early
grasp the essence of the Gospel and become
spirit-filled followers of Christ On the other
hand, the thing that breaks the missionary's
heart is to see some one, for whom he has
laboured so long and suffered so much, some one,
who for a while seemed to catch the Spirit of
Christ, reveal himself in the end as an arch de-
ceiver and rush back into the old life of sin and
again become openly what he had been all the
Again we repeat it. The miracle of modern
missions is that so many grasp the essence of the
Gospel and become living examples of the power
of Christ to transform man. How often during
the dark hours of the Boxer trouble did this fact
stand out illuminated in the martyrdom of some
Chinese Christian. The bowing before an idol,
the burning of a stick of incense, the lighting of
a candle in the temple would have saved lives,
but men died rather than compromise with idol-
atry. They were bound and cast into graves.
They were buried by inches but they held fast to
their faith. They stood calmly by while their
120 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
relatives and friends were beheaded and went
calmly down to death with a prayer on their lips.
Their enemies stood amazed at their steadfast-
ness. When Christians might have escaped
they turned back to warn the beloved mission-
aries. When left alone at their posts the evan-
gelists and preachers went on encouraging and
strengthening the trembling church. Enemies
loitered in and told them that to-morrow the
buildings would be burned and their lives taken.
Their characteristic answer would be, "I have
lived in the church and it will make a good coffin
in which to die."
This same steadfastness has been manifest all
through the history of mission work in China.
Up near Hankow a weaver, while sick in the
mission hospital, learned of Christ and followed
Him. He went back to his brothers and told
them of his new faith. They stormed, plead and
threatened but he refused to leave Christ. They
compelled him to do his full quota of weaving,
hoping to hinder his attendance upon worship
and wean him from his new life. He worked his
loom until midnight on Saturday, walked a long
distance on Sunday morning and returned to his
loom at midnight Sunday in order to do his
share of the weaving. The neighbours advised
him to leave his brothers and offered their homes
as an asylum. He refused their kind offer and
kept at his self-appointed task. ** If I leave
CHINESE CONVERTS 121
them," he said, ** they will never become fol-
lowers of Christ." In ten years he had won the
last one of them and then they turned to him and
said, ** You go out and preach and we will sup-
We opened in Chu Cheo a chapel on a main
thoroughfare and discovered after it had been
rented that we were directly opposite a black-
smith shop. The fronts of both buildings being
entirely open to the street, the pounding on the
anvil on the one side made preaching on the
other very difficult. We wondered if we had
made a mistake in renting the place. Very
grateful were we when at times the pounding
would cease and the blacksmith would be seen
sitting on the benches listening to the preaching.
After two years we gave up the place and rented
one situated in a better location. The only
person directly won by the two years of preach-
ing in the place was the blacksmith himself.
He began working quietly among his neigh-
bours. They, too, had often sat and listened to
our preaching. He gathered them into his shop
for an evening reading of the Scriptures. When
he could persuade his assistants to come, he
would bring them to the Sunday services. At
the call for volunteer street preachers he was al-
ways ready to respond. A number of his neigh-
bours have already confessed their faith in Christ.
One morning while we were holding worship
122 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
with the hospital patients and servants, a young
man rushed in and disturbed the worship. A
severe attack of fever had deranged his mind
and left him temporarily insane. His parents
were unable to control him. There are no
asylums in China for such unfortunates. Hea-
thenism is not philanthropic. As long as he
harmed no one he went where he pleased. One
who becomes violently insane is shackled and
chained. This young man became the sport for
children upon the street. They would follow
him, jeering at him and pelting him with sticks
and mud. Chinese would drive him from their
doors with curses. He would come into our
medical assistants' room and slyly make away
with pencils and pens. They bore with him
patiently and treated him gently.
When he recovered his mind he did not forget
the treatment he had received, either from the
heathen or the Christians. He asked our serv-
ants to buy some Christian literature for him and
invited them to the place where he worked.
One Christmas day one of them came to us
with the request that a Mr. Wang wished to be
"But who is Mr. Wang?"
" Don't you remember," they said, " that
crazy fellow who used to come in and disturb our
Yes, we remembered him. But had he recov-
CHINESE CONVERTS 123
ered and did he know anything about what be-
coming a Christian means ?
This is the answer he gave us. " When I was
sick, I received very different treatment from the
Christians than I did from my own friends. I
knew it then and have not forgotten it now.
Since I have recovered, I have been studying
your Bible iot I thought if becoming a Christian
means to treat people the way you treated me,
I wanted to become one."
Upon the day on which we commemorate the
birth of our Lord, Mr. Wang was buried in bap-
tism with his Master and made the day his birth-
day in the new life. Little did we suppose that
we would be able to win a soul by being gentle
towards one thus deranged.
In the Nanking Christian College there was a
young man who, while a member of the church,
was careless about his religious life and work in
school. His teachers looked upon him as one of
the hopeless ones. He had plenty of ability but
Dr. Li, a Chinese whose soul is filled with the
burning power of the Holy Spirit, has been in
recent days going up and down the Yangtse
valley stirring the Church and imparting to them
a knowledge of what Christ can do in the Chinese
Christian. He came to Nanking and for two
weeks gathered the students of the various col-
leges into daily meetings. One of the first stirred
124 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
by the preaching of Dr. Li was this heretofore
careless student. He surrendered himself to God
and went to work. He went to his non-Christian
parents and plead with them until he broke them
down and won them to Christ.
In the college he began with a small group of
the students and became their leader. They
stirred the school. The spirit spread to the
Christian Girls' School, resulting in the conver-
sion of a number but, more important, trans-
formed the life of the entire student body. They
banded themselves still closer together and went
out on the streets and in the chapels on Sundays
preaching the Gospel.
When the summer vacation came they planned
a more far-reaching campaign. Instead of
spending the time teaching private classes in
western studies and earning money for them-
selves, they went out, two by two, to all the sta-
tions and outstations within reach carrying the
inspiration to other bands.
The girls likewise visited places within their
reach and came back bearing witness of the ac-
companying, protecting power of God with them
in the ministry. Men and women were led to
confess hidden sins they had been harbouring.
Timid disciples of the Master caught the fire and
became active witnesses for Him. This revival
in the Yangtse valley is only one of many that
have been taking place all over China. Dr. Li,
CHINESE CONVERTS 125
the evangelist, revealed to those students a con-
ception of Christianity which the missionaries
had been unable to impart, but even beyond the
work he did, before the local circles were
reached, God stirred a careless young student to
Many more illustrations will appear elsewhere
showing the reality of Christianity among the
Chinese. Remember, however, when meditating
upon them, that human nature is everywhere the
same. Other things being equal, the power of
the Holy Spirit operates upon the heart of a
Chinese, Hindoo, German, Englishman, or
American in practically the same manner and
with the same results. Be the skin of a man
white, black or yellow, love finds the same re-
sponse from each heart. The Gospel, giving the
hope of eternal life, belongs to them alike and
will, when presented in the spirit of Christ, find
a like reception from them all.
MY " TIMOTHY "
WHEN we first went to China we were
impressed with the wisdom of finding
a Chinese who, by reason of close as-
sociation with us, could accurately represent to
his fellow countrymen our mission to and desire
for them. He would save us many mistakes and
correct many erroneous impressions concerning
us that might spring up in their minds. We
were so strongly influenced by the thought that
we were led to pray most earnestly to have such
an one led to us, — and Chen Li-seng came.
He had been a Chinese pedagogue for nine
years. He was of the '* old school " type. The
children who had sat at his feet had committed
the Classics to memory in the same ancient
stereotyped way that their ancestors had done
a thousand years before. Chen himself was a
first degree graduate, could repeat the thirteen
classical books from memory, write essays and
compose poems. In these accomplishments he
was the same as all his fellow literati.
But in other things he was strangely different
from most of them. He was a consistent be-
liever in and follower of Confucius. He sought
MY "TIMOTHY" 127
to copy the ancient sage in his standard of mo-
rality. He was a filial son and a worshipper of
his ancestors. He did not gamble, accept bribes,
or smoke opium. He did not believe in the wor-
ship of idols yet could not explain the occult
power that seemed to dwell within their inani-
mate forms. Chen was one of those isolated ex-
amples found among the heathen, " a seeker after
righteousness" ; yet he was satisfied that he was
receiving a full measure of righteousness in his
imitating of the high moral standard laid down
by the great teacher Confucius.
To Chen a man who accepted the foreign
doctrine of Christianity, was merely seeking the
'' loaves and fishes." He despised such even as he
despised the foreigners. Before he came to us as
a teacher, he had never conversed with a for-
eigner and never had had a desire to do so. He
had never seen a Bible or been inside a chapel.
Two things led him to consent to become our
teacher ; the regularity of the pay-day and a
growing desire which he shared with all edu-
cated Chinese, to know something of things
Now a missionary must not only learn to
speak the Chinese language but more important
than that, he must become thoroughly conver-
sant with Chinese customs and be able to adapt
himself to them if he would win the people. Un-
less the confidence of the teacher is gained, he
128 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
will not readily explain their customs, as these
are very closely entwined about the heart of
every follower of Confucius. The missionary,
finding these customs so antipodal to those
which have surrounded his life, is liable to make
light of the Chinese ways and manners and lose
the confidence of his teacher before he fairly
gains it. So the contact with the man who sits
daily across the table from the new missionary is
a vital matter. The whole future usefulness of
the new recruit on the mission field will be af-
fected by his attitude towards his Chinese
We became the pupils of Chen Li-seng. He
did not know a word of English, nor we a word
of Chinese. Kind friends helped us over the dif-
ficult places for a few days. A dictionary, the
fruit of the experience of missionaries for a cen-
tury back, was at our elbow. Mr. Chen wrote
simple conversations upon every-day practical
subjects, then slowly read them to us and we re-
peated them after him. He was the first Chinese
we ever understood and the first to understand
When we had progressed a little in the use of
the language he took us to the street, to stores,
into shops. We called upon the high classes and
talked with the low. We conversed with masons
and carpenters, he ever helping us over the rough
places. He wrote contracts for us, cleared up
MY "TIMOTHY'' 129
misunderstandings between us and the servants
and formed the first reUgious expressions we
made in the Chinese language. Everywhere he
was at our side, correcting, interpreting, guard-
ing us against pitfalls.
It was a long while before we began to dimly
realize that he was the one whom God was lead-
ing to us in answer to our prayer. He had
shown himself in many ways to be unfavourable
to Christianity. Not till long afterwards did we
find the reason for his treating it so fairly and
studying it so carefully. He attended the serv-
ices on Lord's Days, often was present at
prayer-meetings, and would willingly and lucidly
aid our stammering tongues in explaining the
Gospel to visitors who came to call on us.
At times he was led to speak very strongly
against evils which were degrading and demoral-
izing his country. The forcing of the opium
traffic upon China by the English rankles in
every Chinese heart and Chen was a Chinese.
Nevertheless, he would with equal force denounce
the grafting in their official circles and the too
flagrant cases of miscarriage of justice for which
their courts are notorious.
Yet he believed there were other men like him-
self who were living high moral lives and he
would resent the wholesale condemnation of their
nation by unwise evangelists. ** I have been
with you for a year and a half. Have /wronged
130 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
you in any way ? '* He gloried in his morality
and to class him with the degenerate of China
wounded his proud spirit.
But his next question startled us and showed
that, after all his pride in a moral character, the
leaven of the Gospel was working within his
heart. ** Suppose a man secretly beUeves in
Christ as his Saviour. Must he be an avowed
follower to be saved ? "
" If a man really believes in Jesus Christ as
his Saviour, he cannot be a secret follower. He
cannot help speaking." Ah, there is a vital
energy in Christianity not to be found in Con-
fucian ethics and the difference was dawning upon
We began to call his attention to what it means
for an educated Chinese to follow Christ. He
would be despised and rejected from fellow-
ship by all his fellow literati. He could not take
a step which would bring greater anguish to his
parents. For one of his rank to become a Chris-
tian would as greatly wound his father as for an
American father to see his boy become a gam-
bler, drunkard and criminal. All this we told
" These things will not deter me if I come to
believe in Him as my Saviour." And yet when,
in his heart, he began to acknowledge that
Christ might be just that to him, it did deter
him. Could he break over the traditions of
MY "TIMOTHY" 131
China and become such an unfilial son as to thus
wound his parents ? It took many days to fight
out the battle.
" I will obey my Lord first and then go to my
parents. My Lord must come first now." That
was his decision.
Standing in the baptismal waters he made the
great confession. " From my heart I believe
Jesus Christ to be the Son of God and my
Saviour." Then he went home to receive not
the blessing but the chastisement of terribly
wounded parents. He accepted it all humbly
and patiently although it tore his heart almost as
much as theirs were torn. Then to show them
the sincerity of his profession and the change in
his heart, he began sending home as a Christian
more money than he had as a Confucianist.
One day he told us why he had been led to
consider Christianity so carefully. '* I was daily
living within the walls of your home. I saw the
regard with which you and your wife treated
each other. Your wife is educated. She is your
equal. You recognize her equality and love
reigns in your home. We have nothing like that
in our Chinese homes. So I have been studying
the Scriptures to see if it were, as you said, the
natural fruitage of Christianity, for I long to have
such a home. It has led me to accept Christ for
myself and the home I hope to have."
He had been married just after coming to us
132 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
as a teacher. His wife was ten years his junior,
only seventeen at the time, and had had very
little experience to guide her in the new life into
which she was thrown. She had not been asked
whether she would ** love, honour and obey " this
man to whose home she was carried. Neither
had Chen been given any voice in the matter.
He took what was chosen for him " sight unseen."
He might have been a little more careful about
the matter, had he caught his glimpse of a Chris-
tian home earlier.
Since he was living away from his parents'
home at the time of his marriage, he, according
to Chinese custom, left his wife in the home of
his parents. His mother was above the average
woman in character, but she and the new bride
did not harmonize well in disposition and it
looked as though he would be handicapped from
the first in his desire to build up a happy home.
He was educated. She was illiterate. Both
were somewhat refined in nature as their homes
were of the better class of people. But he was
now a Christian and she was a heathen.
He rented a place in Chu Cheo, furnished it as
well as he was able and brought his wife to the
new home. He began teaching her to read and
treated her kindly. It was really his first oppor-
tunity to become acquainted with her. Under
his gentle care and guidance she developed won-
derfully. In six months great was his joy to
MY "TIMOTHY'^ 133
have her express a desire to also become a fol-
lower of Jesus Christ. Now there were two, who
were seeking to make a home beautiful.
For four years he had been teaching us. He
had gone into the dispensary and hospital where
he not only aided us in speech, but his willing
hands had washed and dressed the ulcers, given
anesthetics and prepared medicines. He had
taken his turn in teaching and preaching to the
patients. When we went on itineraries, he often
accompanied us and in the market towns would
step into the difficult places and aid us in making
friends. He taught in the Sunday-school and
sometimes would stand in the pulpit. He was
becoming a true " Timothy.'*
Every Chinese seems born with a desire to
gain riches. Tradition has instilled into their
minds that if there is any possibility of obtaining
happiness in this world or the next, money will
obtain it. Happiness and wealth are, therefore,
synonymous in the popular mind.
Chen saw many avenues through which he, as
a Christian, might legitimately prosper. He had
studied western learning ever since coming to us.
He had gained a considerable knowledge of
modern medicine. He could take photographs.
He had gained a knowledge of the English
language which would qualify him for govern-
ment positions at several times the salary he was
receiving from the mission. Why should he not
134 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
enter business and with his larger salary support
several evangelists instead of merely doing the
work of one man himself ? Would not he, as a
business man, have greater influence for Christ
than one who was under the pay of the mission ?
While in the midst of this struggle with him-
self, the Christians in the district took a step
towards self-support and decided to jointly sup-
port a local pastor. Their plan was to place the
pastor in the central congregation at Chu Cheo
and have him visit the other congregations at
intervals. They were given the opportunity to
choose the one they desired and the choice fell
upon Chen. He was the best educated, had ex-
ecutive ability and unselfish devotion to Chris-
tian service. He took the position reluctantly
as he was not yet ready to declare himself per-
manently for the ministry.
In a two years' pastorate he transformed the
district into a well-organized working body. He
stood square against using the power of the
Church in legal matters and selfish ends. He
became the brains of the circle of evangelists and
The Christians of the Central China Christian
mission hold annually a general convention.
Chen's ability and blameless Christian life were
being recognized in these larger gatherings.
For two years he served as their secretary and
then they kept him as their president for another
'J^..^^^' f '
Chinese Christians in convention.
MY "TIMOTHY" 135
two years. The missionaries organized an an-
nual Bible Institute for the evangelists and pas-
tors. The lectures were at first given by the
missionaries. Chen was the first to be raised
from the place of pupil to the position of teacher.
He led the devotions, presided over various
meetings and in emergency gave most acceptably
a course of lectures. Had he been willing to
accept the place he could have had the pastorate
of the largest congregation in the mission, but
his love for the local field was too strong.
In the midst of this larger field of activity, the
long fight between money and the ministry which
had been striving away in his heart, came to an
end. At the close of a local convention when
the delegates were voicing the inspiration, which
they had received from the meeting, he arose and
made the final declaration. " I long wanted to
become rich and I thought it was for the sake of
the Gospel. I now know that God has wanted
to use me to make you all rich in the knowledge
of His Word and to that end I henceforth conse-
The effect upon his own home and relatives
will be the best commentary upon this step he
took. What could he have done that would
have more likely overcome the antagonism of
his parents than to have turned his ability into
money-making? They would naturally have
reaped the benefit of his wealth. The first
136 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
noticeable step following his final decision for the
ministry was when his wife forgot her diffidence
and began to publicly teach and lead the women
to Christ, The next was when his nephew was
baptized. The last victory is recorded in his
quaint English when in writing a letter he says,
" My mother will trust Christ, but my father
wants to trust God and gods." May the day
soon come when his father, too, will be willing
to trust God alone and forsake the gods.
DO LITTLE GIRLS COUNT
AT a recent commencement of the Nanking
Christian Girls' School the church build-
ing, in which the exercises were held,
was crowded to the doors. The windows were
thrown open and the Chinese who could not gain
admittance, crowded around these that they
might see and hear. The rich and influential
men and women of that important Chinese city
had eagerly responded to the invitations sent
them to be present on this occasion and filled all
the main body of the building. For the first
time in China's history, her leaders are struggling
with the problem of the education of the hitherto
despised half of her race. They have become
interested in what missionaries are doing for
China's womanhood. Clad in their silks, those
men and women walked into a Christian church
and listened with rapt attention to the program
of music, essays and speeches in which a Chris-
tian tone was dominant.
The last speaker on the program was a little
ten year old girl whose part it was to explain the
purpose of Christian missions in opening schools
for girls. She spoke to an audience, the large
138 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
part of whom were atheists or idolaters. Many
of them had sanctioned the frequent practice in
China of destroying their girl babes. Had she
told them her own history it would have, in an
even more striking way, explained the aim of
missions. She, herself, had been thrown out by
her parents and left to die. Had it not been for
the work of missionaries she would have long
since been lost in the multitudes of babes de-
stroyed by the practice of infanticide.
Mrs. Shi of the Yu-ho-tsz village in Anhwui
Province, is as consecrated a woman as can be
found in the Church of Christ. Yet twenty years
ago she was no better than the mass of ignorant,
superstitious and unmoral women found in China.
Fifteen years ago she became a follower of
About ten years ago she was going down to
the stream back of her house to wash the rice for
the morning meal. Down by the edge of the
stream she found the body of a new-born girl
babe with its little limbs immersed in the edge of
the cold stream. In the darkness of the night it
had been rolled down the bank by heartless par-
ents, they expecting that it would roll into the
water and be drowned. They had not quite suc-
ceeded in their plan, but the cold water and chilly
night air had well-nigh accomplished the task.
A heathen woman would likely have glanced
around to see if any one were looking and then
DO LITTLE GIRLS COUNT 139
kicked the body into the stream. A new-born
love in Mrs. Shi's heart caused her to pick up the
half-lifeless form and hurry with it back to her
rooms. She worked over it for hours until the
blood once more circulated through the sluggish
veins and a hungry cry awarded her work.
Perhaps Mrs. Shi would have stopped appalled
at the task before her, had she taken time to
think, but she was too busy saving life to think.
Not till life was once more freely flowing through
the little body did she stop to consider what she
had done and face the future. How she suc-
ceeded in carrying that little one through the fol-
lowing years will always be a mystery and a
The Chinese in that part of the country have
cows but they have never used them except as
plow animals. The people neither drink milk
nor eat butter. Prepared foods are a product of
more advanced countries and are practically un-
known to the Chinese, The only food they have
ever developed for feeding babes who have been
robbed of their natural birthright is rice water or
But with these accessories Mrs. Shi started un-
daunted on her task of saving a castaway babe.
From kind missionary friends she could at times
obtain condensed milk. Many, many times dur-
ing the first year or two did she go up to some
Chinese mother with that babe in her arms and
140 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
plead that it might for a time lie upon a life-giv-
ing mother breast. She called the little one,
*' Little Love." She poured upon her the wealth
of a mother affection. No trial seemed too hard,
no task too great, if it would minister towards
preserving the life of this babe, denied as it was
of its rightful heritage.
There, in that church, ten years later, Little
Love stood upon the platform before the great
men and elegant women of Nanking. It was
through the grace of God that she was there.
She, who had been cast out by her own parents
at birth ; who had been caught up and nurtured
by one clothed in the body of despised woman-
hood ; who had been educated and refined by
Christianity ; she, Little Love, is an emblem of
the new girlhood soon to be given to the other
half of China's little ones when Christ comes to
In times past this oriental nation has had little
love to waste upon her girls. The perpetuation
of the family name and line was, in their minds,
the important object in the rearing of children.
The boy was the prime factor in such an under-
taking. Their girls, when grown up, must be
lost to the home of their parents and assist in the
perpetuation of some other line and name. To
rear them was somewhat of a thankless task done
for the benefit of some one else.
Then, in a land where famine frequently deci-
DO LITTLE GIRLS COUNT Ul
mates the population, and where the poor die by
the roadside uncared for ; where the great burn-
ing question is " How shall I get enough to eat
and live " ; is it strange that parents should have
little love to waste upon those whom they are
taught are useless appendages? And is it
strange, when the future holds nothing but
dreary searching for enough to keep life in one's
own body, that the strangling of a new-born
babe before it has had opportunity to breathe
God's free air, should appear to such distorted
minds more like an act of mercy than a crime
against moral law ?
So the missionary sees the little bodies floating
in the scum of the ponds or thrown out by the
roadside and half eaten by the wolfish dogs. It
is not necessary to open the little bundle of
matting found by the side of the city wall to know
what it contains. Shanghai has its hexagonal
baby tower into which their little bodies may be
cast. Nanking has its temple to which they may
be brought by parents who cannot, or care not to,
bury the bodies. Men, in order to accumulate
merit for themselves and make their own entrance
into heaven more sure, subscribe towards the
burying of these little bodies and many are the
graves dug for them.
Buddhists in certain quarters have been inspired
to establish orphanages. A circular bucket, hung
upon a pivot, is fixed in the outer wall. One
142 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
side of the bucket is open and swung out to the
street. Any person who so desires may place a
babe therein and swing the bucket in. It will be
received without question and nurses will be
called in to rear the babe. But to what end is
this seeming charity done ?
Slavery, largely of little girls, still exists in
Sinim. Families who may wish a girl servant
find the solution in buying one of these waifs and
rearing it as a slave. Sometimes they treat it
well as though it were their own child. But fre-
quently there creep out to the world stories
of terrible treatment. Houses of ill-fame are
found in all their cities. The girls in them are
veritable slaves. Dressed in gorgeous raiment
to attract the trade, they are often displayed
upon the public streets. Agents who have
no other business furnish, buy and kidnap
girls for these houses. Perhaps such traffic is
carried on in all countries. But when an orphan-
age is established and supported by philanthropy
to supply such a demand it ceases to be worthy
of our admiration.
Which is worse, to rear a girl and condemn
her to a life of shame or make away with the
helpless infant ? That is the question which faces
multitudes of Chinese mothers. Often they are
not to blame either for bringing the little one into
the world or for its going out of the world. The
father has the power of life and death over his
DO LITTLE GIELS COUNT 143
entire family. Sitting in our comfortable homes,
surrounded by every comfort, and far removed
from such scenes and sufferings, it is easy for us
to judge and condemn. It becomes another
question when we stand face to face with the
awful problem itself.
The Confucian classics teach that a woman
may be divorced for any one of seven reasons,
such as being a gossip, a scold, sterile, unfaithful
to her husband and so on. No suggestion is
given as to how a woman may divorce her hus-
band. It was not thought of. The classics teach
that a girl should be obedient to her parents, a
married woman to her husband and a widow to
her eldest son. No suggestion is made concern-
ing her education. Her mission is to bear sons
and play a very humble part in making a home.
What, then, has brought about this changed atti-
tude ? Why should Chinese leaders begin to be
interested in girls' schools opened by missionaries
and why should they themselves seek to open other
such schools ? Neither commercial nor political
relations with other nations have caused the
change. The change has come by reason of
the hundreds of homes established throughout
the country by missionaries. The revelation of
what a woman can be when she has been reared
and educated amid Christian influences and given
an equal opportunity for development, has read-
justed their viewpoint.
144 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
** We did not know that it was possible to de-
velop our women, to make them our equals.
Neither had we dreamed it possible to find pleas-
ure and congenial fellowship in association with
one of the other sex. We must have such homes
as you have. We must educate our girls. We
can see now that these things must be a part of
our reform. China cannot be elevated to an
equality with other nations unless we make our
homes equal to your homes." Thus the change
is coming. It has been long in coming, but God
has heard the cry of downtrodden womanhood
and is staying the hand of her oppressors. Little
girls are beginning to count, even in China.
A CHINESE "DORCAS"
WHEN one sees her a few yards away
she does not appear especially attract-
ive. She looks too much like an old
plodding country woman, and such she is. Her
shoulders are stooped. Her gait is lumbering
as though she had walked over many uneven
places. Her hands and face are wrinkled and
sunburned. Her ready-made clothing is made
of indigo-coloured cloth and much worn. No,
she is very litde different from a thousand other
country women when seen at a distance. And
a thousand pass her without even bestowing a
glance upon her as she quietly makes her way
over the uneven Chinese streets.
But look at her when she gets a little closer and
something in her face shows that she is ddfTerent
from most of the other Chinese women. She, at
least, seems to know where she is going. She
does not stare at the store displays like the coun-
try women usually do. Her glance is very direct,
too, and there is a kindly look in her eyes that
makes her face seem attractive even though her
general appearance is not. She must be nearly
146 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
sixty years old, perhaps five feet four inches in
height, — just ordinary in general appearance.
When Mrs. Gerould, one of America's Christian
women, started to build for her husband a monu-
ment, she went across to India to choose the spot.
It is a complete mission station in the heart of
India by which she commemorates his memory.
When she had completed the arrangements for
the establishment of that memorial station, she
came on around the globe to China and stopped
for a few days with friends among the mission-
aries in that country.
She had only three days in which to become
acquainted with Mrs. Shi, this plodding country
woman, — three days in an unknown tongue. Mrs.
Gerould was a well-dressed, wholesome. Christian
woman and Mrs. Shi was a very plainly dressed,
Chinese, Christian country woman. Their cus-
toms were different. The great chasm of antipodal
languages separated them. That they could write
the term '' Christian " in connection with each of
their characters was about the only thing they held
in common. It would seem a difficult task to pro-
ceed far in acquaintanceship when only three
days were to be given to the task.
Somewhere in that short space of time the
motherly heart of the American woman discov-
ered its counterpart within the bosom of her
Chinese sister. She loved the two missionary
women who were living and working in that iso-
A CHINESE "DORCAS" 147
lated interior station of Chu Cheo and it had not
required a common tongue for her to find out
that Mrs. Shi loved them as well as she.
When the three days had flown by and Mrs.
Gerould was in the sedan chair and the coolies
had placed their shoulders under the poles to bear
her back to Nanking, Mrs. Shi came hurrying
back from some errand of mercy to say her good-
by. The two women broke out in a stream of
words in two languages expecting the missionary
standing by to interpret for them. They stopped
speaking almost as suddenly as they had begun.
Language was not needed as a medium between
them. One was holding out her hand in American
fashion and the other was clasping her own palms
in Chinese style, but even contrary customs could
not be the bearer of those final messages. The
eyes of the one, looking dimly through the tears
straight into the heart of the other, bore the mes-
sage of love between them. No interpreter was
needed. And the one that they might have used
as interpreter did not interfere or interrupt. He
was interested in something, just then, he saw on
the far away mountains.
Mrs. Shi is a mother to the little village in which
she lives. Sorrow enters none of the homes, sick-
ness comes not anywhere, no trouble invades the
place but that she is found in the midst of the
afflicted ones. When the missionary women in
Chu Cheo are left alone, their husbands being
us BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
absent on preaching tours in the surrounding
country, all feeling of anxiety is taken away, if
Mrs. Shi can be with them.
When Evangelist Shi, the story-teller, broke
away from his opium and began to follow Christ,
he went back to Yu-ho-tsz, his former home, and
began work in the inn owned by Mr. Wang, Mrs.
Shi's first husband. In the evening when his work
was done, Mr. Shi would take a bench out in front
of the inn and tell the story of Christ who had
saved him. His bitterest antagonist was Mrs.
Wang. She stormed and raged at him and led
in the petty insults which the villagers heaped
upon him. But in the end patience conquered
and she became the first convert of the village to
the new religion.
Mr. Wang died not long afterwards and her
relatives, both for the money they would make
and in order to stop the spread of this " foreigners'
religion," plotted secretly to sell her off to another
man who lived a distance away. Men came on
horseback in the night to kidnap her. But the
plot had been discovered and friends had warned
her. They aided her to capture the capturers.
Had it been in the days before she became a Chris-
tian they would have been sent to their homes
with sore backs and bruised bodies, for she was
capable in the use both of her tongue and arms.
But she was a follower of Christ now. When she
let them go, they went in wonder, for they had
A CHINESE " DORCAS '^ 149
seen a Chinese woman under control of the Holy
She preferred to choose her second husband for
herself and when the proper time came she was
married to the former inn-servant, Shi Gwei-biao.
The Church in China has been profited by that
marriage. The home they established has been
a contrast to every other home in that region, —
and a model. It is clean ; it is full of peace and
love ; it is a centre from which radiates a ministry
to all other homes in the region.
For a few years the little circle of Christians
met from house to house. Then it became neces-
sary to open a central place of worship. Every
home in the village is mud-walled and thatch-
roofed. Grass and bamboo poles and even small
trees are to be found on the hillsides for the
cutting. They needed little else beside labour.
Why should they not build their own chapel?
Mr. Shi and the men laid up the walls and bound
together the rafters. Mrs. Shi and the women
went out to the hills with their sickles and carry-
ing poles, cut the grass for thatch and brought
it home on their shoulders. The men laid the
roof, set up the rough doors and the chapel was
done. With its whitewashed walls and its clean
interior, it began its silent witness for purity.
For nearly ten years the little chapel was the
gathering-place of the church in that region.
The membership increased and spread out into
150 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
the surrounding country and into the neighbour-
ing market towns. Then came the call for a
second chapel. It must be more permanent than
the first. Gifts came to Mr. Hunt, the mission-
ary evangelist in Chu Cheo, from friends in
America and England. The Chinese gave out
of their poverty with liberal hands. Ground was
bought in the neighbouring market town of
Gwanwei and a larger and more permanent
edifice was erected. Again the enthusiasm of
Mrs. Shi was manifested. Out of her slender
means she bought substantial, comfortable seats
for the entire building. Had she not made this
offering hard Chinese benches would have been
installed in their stead. One cannot sit in that
church without thinking of this ** Dorcas " whose
care is always for the happiness of others.
For four hundred miles or more to the north-
west of Nanking there runs a highway built by
one of the Ming emperors. Its purpose was to
connect the cities of Nanking, Fengyang and
Kaifeng which he had designated as his capital
cities. It is but a caravan route over which flows
the traffic of that region. Caravan animals,
wheelbarrows, and a great army of travellers
follow one another over this road in Indian file,
making it but a series of cow-paths. No wagon
can pass along it. The road is rough and un-
This line of traffic taps at its northern end the
A CHINESE "DORCAS^' 161
regions so often visited by famine. The suffer-
ers, when driven out by hunger, will load a few
cooking vessels and other camping supplies on a
wheelbarrow, perhaps build a nest in the centre
for a baby or two, then start on their journey
southward to the land of plenty. Day by day
they follow the trail. By begging and petty
thieving, they try to eke out their slender means
until they reach their destination. They fall sick
and exhausted by the way. The little children
may be sold. The sick ones when too weak to
travel, are left to the tender mercies (?) of the vil-
lages by the way.
These people have been the great burden upon
the heart of Mr. and Mrs. Shi. They aid them
to build huts, give them little articles of clothing
and minister to their sick ones. Among the three-
score they have won to Christ a goodly number
have been saved through this means. Two
evangelists and a colporteur, now in the service,
have been thus picked up by them. A few dollars
placed in the hands of these people bear big in-
terest in the saving of people, and the missionaries
have never been afraid of its being misused.
Sometimes Mrs. Shi comes down to Chu Cheo
to visit the missionaries. But she is never idle.
She will take a quiet walk up some side street
until she meets a group of women talking at the
door of some home. In perfect Chinese style she
will stop to listen and enter into the conversation.
152 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
She soon is leading the talk and the women will
invite her into the home that they may hear more.
By and by she will be preaching to them. After
a while the doctor, busy in his dispensary, looks
out and sees her piloting a group of women into
the place. She has found some woman who
needs medical aid. She tells them of the foreign
doctor who heals people. They have heard of
him before but are afraid to go alone. She offers
to come with them. Perhaps they are of the
wealthier and more secluded class. To them
even her offer to accompany them will not over-
come their timidity. Then she will persuade
them to visit the foreign lady. There their
timidity will gradually disappear and then the
doctor will be invited into his own house to see
the sick person. In these ways she wins their
confidence and drives out the antipathy they have
formed towards the foreigner and the religion he
is bringing to their people and her people.
Once in a while she tramps over the sixty miles
between her home and the school at Nanking
where Little Love, whose life she saved when her
parents had cast her out to drown, attends school.
Aitsz (Little Love) is very precious to Mrs. Shi.
Country clothes look rather shoddy down at
Nanking. It is an important official city and the
people there dress much finer than those who
live north of the river. But Mrs. Shi's coarse
clothes do not bar her from the hearts of the
A CHINESE "DORCAS'' 153
schoolgirls. They give her a royal welcome,
for all love her.
Four of the oldest schoolgirls attended the an-
nual conference which was held in Chu Cheo.
On Sunday afternoon the church was given over
to a woman's meeting. The schoolgirls were
the chief speakers. The house had the greatest
crowd of women it ever held. One evening, a
little later, when the men were having a special
session, the girls dressed Mrs. Shi in their school
clothing and one of them donned her country
clothes and became a gawky country woman. In
the parlour of one of the mission homes Mrs. Shi
lost her identity and turned her years back to
girlhood once more. No wonder the girls love
her. She is one who never grows old.
Such are a few glimpses into the life of one
loved by missionaries and Chinese alike. She,
it iSk who is the " hot-hearted " leader of the
Chinese Christian women of the Chu Cheo dis-
trict, — their " Dorcas.''
"HAPPINESS IS COME"
HIS name is Djao. His parents called
him Lai-fu which means " Happiness
is Come," because they were so happy
when they found they had a boy. Outside the
fact of his being a boy he brought them little
happiness, for it meant one more mouth to feed
and they were only poor farm labourers. That
was far up in the northern province of Shansi.
They had to work out all day and the baby
boy was left in the end of a furrow or any other
hollow while his mother hoed the corn and beans.
Something went wrong for he grew up with a
bent back. They said it was because there was
no one to help him when he began to walk but
more likely there was something wrong with the
There was not much to remember in those
days but an empty stomach. That seemed to be
the most prominent thing in his little life. Some-
where in those days his mother did not get
enough to eat and she died. Then, after a few
years more, a famine came and carried away his
father. His name seemed to represent all the
happiness they ever obtained in this world.
" HAPPINESS IS COME '' 155
A distant relative took him in charge. This
man had been a little more successful than
many. Eight acres of land, eight head of work-
ing cattle, two hired men and one son were down
to his credit. The orphaned boy's work was to
watch the cattle as they fed by the side of the
road or in the fields.
It was not hard work, especially as the boy
was getting a little nearer the proper allowance
of rations. There was no schooling for him.
Orphans out on a farm never dream of such a
luxury. Very few sons of even prosperous
farmers have this privilege. If he got enough
to eat and did not shiver with the cold in winter
he felt himself happy.
But the time came when he did not have
enough. Neither did the farmer. Another
famine year came around and he was told that
he was not wanted in that home. There were
too many mouths to fill. So he found himself, a
twelve-year-old boy, out in the world alone. No
door was open to him, no work was to be found.
No mother, no father, no brother, no sister, no
anybody — just one lone boy. If he starved, if
he died, no one would care, no one would miss
So he began his wanderings. Every refugee
goes south. It is warmer there and does not
require so many clothes. Then there is a gen-
eral impression that food and clothing can be ob-
156 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
tained in the southern provinces if one is wiUing
to work. Anywhere is better than in a famine
district. People were dying there and no one
likes to die, especially if he has no friends. So
south he went, all alone, through three hundred
miles of mountains and plains.
He was a year covering that distance. Why
should he hurry ? All he was looking for was
food and work and shelter. Some days he
found no food. Then he curled himself up in
the corner of some abandoned house and **ate
bitterness." In the cold weather he would
gather some sticks and grass and creeping into
such an abode, would build a bonfire in the cor-
ner to keep himself from freezing. That was a
But all roads have an end. He slowly trav-
elled down through Honan and entered Anhwui
Province. Wandering around a place, called
Mengcheng, he met a farmer one day who took
pity on him and put him to watching his cattle.
So great a contrast was this to his long winter
of wanderings that it seemed as if he could never
wish for anything greater. That was in the
spring. All that summer he had a resting
place. But when the fall came the work was
done. The man had been good to him and
when he started on the road again he had a
warm suit of clothes on his back.
Once again his face was turned southward and
" HAPPINESS IS COME " 157
in a few days he had reached the city of Hwai-
yuen. He wandered out into the country, for
city streets did not yield as abundant supply of
food to a homeless boy as country lanes. Hap-
pily another farmer took pity on him and in his
home Lai-fu was destined to stay several
This man had a mother, a wife, a donkey and
a cow to his credit besides his few acres. He had
also a temper and could use it on many occa-
sions. As usual the cow became the special
charge of Lai-fu. The farmer used both cow
and donkey when he plowed his fields. All the
farmers around that region mix up their work
animals. They may hitch together a water buf-
falo and a cow, a cow and a horse, a donkey and
a buffalo, or any other combination that suits
the live stock they may possess. Sometimes
they hitch together three animals, all different.
After staying with this man for a few years, he
took Lai-fu as a hired man and paid him wages.
He was coming up in the world now. His
wages were two dollars a year and his food.
Now he had money of his own for which he had
But the man's temper did not improve with
age. One day Lai-fu in cutting the broom corn
had left a part that did not appear to him ripe.
The man ordered him to go back and cut it. He
cut it. Then the man saw that it really was not
158 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
ripe and let loose his tongue on the boy and he,
in disgust, quit the job.
Now where ? Two dollars were in his pocket
and a fair amount of clothes on his back. Nan-
king, the historic southern capital of China, was
only one hundred and fifty miles away and every-
body said plenty of work was to be found there.
So for Nanking he started. He was now twenty
years of age, but by reason of that bend in his
back did not look that old.
Two dollars would not go far on a one hundred
and fifty mile tramp except by the most careful
economy. There was no sleeping in inns and
eating of fine meals by the way. When the
farmers would let him, he slept with the cattle in
the farm homes and by their kindness often
gained a breakfast. When they objected he
curled up under some stack of grain or built a
fire in a hollow.
But that amount of money or any other amount
could not keep one from beggary when no work
could be found. He hunted through Nanking
and then with others of his class took cheap
passage up to Wuhu, sixty miles away, but no
work was forthcoming. He came back to Nan-
king and retraced his steps across the river to
Pukoh, the end of the northern caravan routes.
He might meet some driver whom he used to
know from the Hwaiyuen region and from him
get a little help. So fruitless had been his quest
^' HAPPINESS IS COME '^ 159
in a region where it was popularly supposed that
work was to be had for the asking, that he could
wish himself back under the evil temper of
the man with whom he had spent the last
He found no caravan driver whom he knew
but one day when he timidly asked a driver if he
would not '' do good deeds " for merit's sake and
give him a few cash, the man turned to him and
asked, " Where are you from ? "
** From Hwaiyuen."
*• Want to go back ? " Didn't he though ?
*' Will you help take care of my animals on
the road if I give you your food ? "
Was there ever a boy (for he was still a boy)
who having passed through what he had, would
not accept such an opportunity to return to familiar
places ? Up there were people who knew him.
There would be some chance of obtaining work
and leaving this vagrant beggar life which he so
despised. Avery humble boy followed those
mules on their return journey to what had been
home to him.
With all that he had been in places where
foreigners lived he had never seen one. Recendy
there had come a party into Hwaiyuen and Chu
Cheo held others. Then others were setded in
Nanking and Wuhu. He had often heard that
whoever consented to ** eat their religion " would
receive a monthly stipend but it did not sound
160 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
very reasonable and he had never sought charity
One evening as the journey behind those
mules was drawing to an end and they were
expecting on the morrow to arrive in Hwaiyuen,
they looked back and saw a queerly dressed man
coming along on horseback. He was accom-
panied by a well-dressed Chinese whose clothes
showed him to be an educated man, a teacher.
Lai-fu knew it was a foreigner at first glance,
even before the caravan driver muttered ** foreign
He was, however, surprised to hear the for-
eigner address them in Chinese and ask where
they were expecting to stop for the night There
were very few inns along that section of the road
which were prepared to take care of animals over
night, so they were all destined to stop at the
same place and that meant much to his future.
In the night a cold rain began which turned to
sleet and snow and they were shut in together
for a day. Fortunate for Lai-fu that he was in
an inn, for while he had a warm coat, his panta-
loons were thin cotton and one leg of those had
been accidentally torn off above the knee. Of
course he had no stockings and only straw sandals
on his feet.
He curled himself up in the straw, and got up
as close as possible to the other Chinese who were
sleeping together. But it grew colder and finally
« HAPPINESS IS COME " 161
one of the Chinese got up and started a fire in
the middle of the dirt floor around which they all
gathered until the morning dawned. He saw the
foreigner roll himself up in his blankets and stay
in his bunk. There was nothing else to do. It
Shut in all day by that rain and sleet the
parties got acquainted. The caravan driver, who
knew more about foreigners than most of them,
conceived the happy idea of having Lai-fu attach
himself to this one. It would rid himself of
trouble and be not a bad thing for Lai-fu. He
talked to the latter's teacher who was accom-
To Lai-fu it did not matter much. There was a
thrill of something new in his heart at the thought,
the new experience of going with these people
from the outside world of whom Chinese talked
so much and knew so little. To go back to that
vile-tempered farmer was not a pleasing prospect
in view of how he had left him and it did not
matter much where he did go so long as he got
a sufficient amount of food and clothing. The
foreigner seemed kind and certainly could not be
worse than the farmer had been.
The second morning dawned clear, but with a
terrible cold wind blowing across those plains.
The missionary was going on to Hwaiyuen, thir-
teen miles farther, to see his friends there. The
teacher had talked with him about the boy, but
162 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
did not like to make rash promises, as beggars
are rather a hopeless class. He told the boy to
follow him into the city and he would get him a
warm pair of pantaloons.
Bravely the boy helped saddle the missionary's
horse and started to follow him through that bit-
ter wind. The missionary wondered whether he
himself could ride on or be compelled to stop
again until the day warmed. And the boy with
torn pantaloons stood it for a while and then
with frozen tears on his cheeks stopped by a
friendly fire. The inn-people gave him a bowl
of rice gruel. He waited until the sun had
warmed up the air and then plodded on into the
city and hunted up the residence of the mission-
The teacher took him to a clothing store. ** We
live one hundred miles back on the road over
which you have been coming, at Chu Cheo," ex'
plained the teacher to him. '' The roads will be
muddy and the weather bad. You can do as
you please. If you want to go back with us, all
right. If you don't, the clothes are still yours."
That did not sound very much as though they
were trying to get any one to follow them. Well,
he tramped back over that muddy road to Chu
Cheo, one hundred miles, in three days. The
missionary began to believe the boy had some
mettle in him. He was given work to do and he
did it. Never complaining, he ate what was
Djao Lai-fu and his charges.
« HAPPINESS IS COME " 163
given him, slept where they put him and stood by
his job. No money had been promised and none
was given. He was well treated and was well
The ways in those missionary compounds were
strange to him. In the morning they would all
gather together and read out of a Book and then
stand up and shut their eyes while one would
seem to be talking to some One. Every seventh
day they would stop working and gather in a
large building and study that Book some more.
Lai-fu had been in temples when idols were be-
ing worshipped and had often bowed before these
in the farmer's house himself, but he had never
seen anything like this.
They were talking about one true God and His
Son, whom, they said, had died for us because
we were sinners and, if we would worship Him
and be good. He would save us from demons.
Lai-fu did not say much, but his ears were open.
Slowly it came to him that all these years of wan-
dering he had not been alone. Somewhere, not
far ofi, an unknown One had been watching him.
There came into his heart a great longing for that
One and he took Him. That was all. Then the
significance of his name came to him. His ** hap-
piness had come.'*
CHINESE ROADS AND STREETS
ARE the roads of this ancient empire broad
and lined with aged, beautiful elms or
maples? Are they macadamized like
the ancient Roman roads in England ? Do they,
like the great wall of China, run straight across
plains and valleys, rivers and mountains, turning
aside for no obstacle ? We might imagine them
to be something like this.
They do have some macadamized roads in cer-
tain port cities that have been more largely in-
fluenced by foreigners. Such streets are often
flanked with young willows, planted so thickly
that they become a continuous canopy over the
street. But a tree that becomes as large as a
New England elm is so wonderful that they build
a fence around it and stick up a small shrine at
its base. " Only a god could keep a tree alive
through four dynasties." The roads do go up the
mountainsides and across the rivers, — if they are
shallow enough to ford. If not, the travellers are
But the roads are not straight. Fields, not
roads, are the important thing in China. The lat-
ter must bend to the former and be moulded by
CHINESE ROADS AND STREETS 165
their edges. In Central China the land is laid
out for irrigation purposes as rice is the main
crop. These fields are rarely more than an acre
or two in extent. Often they contain only a few-
square rods. They are made irregular by the
rolling land. The road follows their boundaries.
Frequently it assumes the track of a giant rail
fence, adding a third to the distance one is trav-
Around the edge of the field the farmer digs a
trench for the watercourse. The earth therefrom
is thrown upon the road. It was only from five
to ten feet wide to begin with. With this addi-
tional dirt it assumes the shape of a miniature
mountain and the traveller is following the ridge.
Miniature precipices flank the sides down to the
field several feet below. Rains break down the
sides and the road in places is left a foot or two
wide. Cross ditches cut through the road and a
bridge of poles covered with brush and dirt is
constructed. In time this begins to give way and
a hole the size of an animal's leg stares up at the
rider. Great bridges built in the dim past, for
lack of care, have been torn to pieces by the
floods and hand of time. If there is still a path-
way, the road may pass over them. If not, it
circles around them. The broken stones lie about
obstructing the traffic.
Along the great caravan routes is a never
ending stream of humanity and other animals.
166 BREAKIISG DOWN CHINESE WALLS
A caravan of horses, mules and donkeys go
steadily along, each bearing upon its sore back
about three hundred pounds of merchandise.
They will carry it thirty miles a day. A group
of wheelbarrows with as heavy a load follow in
their wake. Those brawny men will push those
barrows twenty miles on a level in a day.
When a difficult place in the road is met, the
line stops and one by one the barrows are pulled
over. Up a mountainside it will take five of
them to put the barrow and its freight to the
top. No barrow man travels alone. He would
be stalled a dozen times a day.
Men on horseback, official couriers, coolies,
with burdens swinging from their carrying poles,
footmen, sedan chairs, mule litters, animals
going to market with long bags of grain laid
across their bare backs, pass one on the road.
Animals and men alike walk with their heads
down. They watch for the holes and the pitfalls.
Only the reckless ones go faster than a walk.
No wagon could survive such a road. A stone
bridge three feet wide may span a watercourse
of ten feet.
Of the main caravan routes the roads dwindle
to mere paths, often mixed up in such confusion
that one rarely knows, except from experience
and perfect familiarity with the road, whether he
is on his way to a city or just going towards
some prosperous farm home. There have never
CHINESE ROADS AND STREETS 167
been any surveys, just a blazing of the way.
Traffic has sought the easiest way between
market towns and the roads dodge as necessity
demands. Sometimes an official, to gain favour
with the people, will lay out a new road or
repair an old bridge but it is forever after
neglected and soon relapses into its former
condition. It is entirely a private activity and
the removal of the individual removes the possi-
bility of permanency.
Along the roads at intervals are littie villages
and larger market towns. Here are barns in
which man and beast may rest for the noontide
or the night. Bams they are to the American
traveller. The caravan drivers and the wheel-
barrow men spread straw over a portion of the
dirt floor, spread out their blankets and crawl in.
For him who has more money there may be
semi-privacy in a dark hole of a room in which
is found a rude bed but the blankets and the
straw are all the same.
These villages and market towns have the
same stamp of lack of plan as the roads. The
town was probably started by a few who banded
themselves for mutual protection and trade.
They selected a spot probably with the help of
a fortune-teller which bore the occult marks of
being a lucky spot. They left a space through
the middle of, perhaps, twenty feet in width for
the main street. On either side they have built
168 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
their houses, roof joining roof, until the cats can
run upon the continuous roof line from one
end of the place to the other. If the place hap-
pens to require a cross street the line is
broken and the roof lines form right angles with
each other. At the ends of the streets they have
erected a gateway which they close at night
shutting out effectually any night prowlers. Up
and down these streets the night watchman
holds his vigil at irregular intervals, beating his
gong, blowing his fog-horn or sounding his bam-
boo rattles as the local custom may dictate.
By mutual agreement the market towns have
divided the time for their respective market days
so that no two near-by places conflict. Two days
in each ten are allotted to each place. This
place has the first and sixth, the eleventh and
sixteenth. The next place has the second and
seventh, and the twelfth and seventeenth. So
the series go. Merchants travel from one to
another. Spreading their wares out on some
empty space of ground, they are ready for cus-
tomers. Approach one of these places on its
market day and the winding paths reaching out
to the four points of the compass are marked by
living processions of men and women coming in
from their country homes to barter and trade.
The names of some of the towns are as edifying
as those found in America and England. Here
are a few translated into English. There are
CHINESE ROADS AND STREETS 169
Ravens' Nest, Old Man's Barn, Continually at
the Mountain Top, Great Willows, Canal Reser-
voir, Red Heart, Sun Peacock, Bridge of the
Djao Family and so on. Many are named after
some family and become the Village of the Djou,
Chen, Wang, Liu, Li or Djang Family as the
case may be. In certain sections these latter
villages will not let any one live in them that is
not of that surname. As there are only between
one and two hundred surnames in all of China it
is not difificult to find sufficient of one name to
make up a village.
Most of these villages have back streets.
Caravans can go through the place at times.
But the rough cobble-boulder stone pavement is
difBcult for the travel of animals. A market day
completely fills it with humanity. Men work
their dough, fit up their mud ovens and bake
their doughnuts, rice cakes and noodles by the
side of the street. The travelling merchants
almost touch each other from the two sides of
the narrow passage. Men and boys with
various sweetmeats and eatables walk up and
down in the crowd seeking purchasers. So the
caravans take the back street and circle out be-
yond the surging throng. That path at the
back grew up just like any part of the main
road. It was a case of necessity and much
travel has made it a road. It, too, dodges the
ponds, the irregular projecting rear ends of the
170 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
successive houses and the edges of near-by
" One day through a primitive wood
A calf walked home as all good calves should ;
But made a trail all bent askew,
A crooked trail as all calves do.
Since then two hundred years have fled,
And I infer the calf is dead.
But still he left behind his trail
And thereby hangs a mortal tale.
The trail was taken up next day
By a lone dog that passed that way.
And then a wise bell-wether sheep
Pursued the trail o'er vale and steep,
And drew the flock behind him, too,
As good bell-wethers always do.
And from that day o'er vale and glade,
Through those old woods a path was made,
And many men wound in and out,
And dodged and turned and bent about.
And uttered words of righteous wrath,
Because 'twas such a crooked path;
But still they followed — do not laugh —
The first migration of that calf,
And through this winding woodway stalked
Because he wabbled when he walked.
This forest path became a lane
That bent and turned and turned again ;
This crooked lane became a road.
Where many a poor horse with his load.
Toiled on beneath the burning sun.
And travelled some three miles in one.
Travelling on the road in sedan chairs with wheelbarrows as
Entrance to Chu Cheo city, showing rut of wheelbarrow in
paving stones ; city gates, wall and moat ; and a wayside
CHINESE ROADS AND STREETS 171
And thus a century and a half
They trod the footsteps of that calf.
The years passed on in swiftness fleet,
The road became a village street,
And this, before men were aware,
A city's crowded thoroughfare.
And soon the central street was this
Of a renowned metropolis.
And men two centuries and a half
Trod in the footsteps of that calf;
Each day a hundred thousand rout
Followed the zigzag calf about ;
And o'er his crooked journey went
The traffic of a continent.
A hundred thousand men were led
By a calf near three centuries dead."
This was written in derision of a certain
American city, but it is an ideal description of
Chinese roads and streets. Their roads have
been dodging because a stone was there and no
man took the trouble to remove it. They dodged
again because the spot was a lucky one on which
to build a signal mound. Then some fortune-
teller decided that Li Hung Chang should find
the luckiest spot for his private burial ground
immediately across the great highway. And he
paid the money to the local town heads and they
ordered the road to dodge. Rains have come
and washed out the main road. Then the cara-
vans wandered off in the fields and found another
path for the road and it stayed there. Rain has
172 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
not come and the official has closed the city gate
through which the main traffic goes and the sweat-
ing weary wheelbarrow men have pushed their
squeaking barrows around to another gate to
appease an angry god.
So have they built their homes and their tem-
ples and their public buildings. Born of fear,
filled with selfishness, seeking luck, as chance
dictated or to appease some god or demon, they
have constructed their lives, their possessions and
all their hopes. No wonder the Chinese have
so slowly awakened to the great task of regener-
ation. To straighten out the tangles in which
King Custom has for ages bound them is a task
before which any nation might shrink.
WHEN WE GO ITINERATING
WE are starting for a ten days' trip
through the market towns to the west
and north of our station. The region
through which we shall pass is a mountainous
country whose cozy valleys are filled with com-
fortable farm homes and terraced fields. The
people are mostly uneducated, but thrifty and self-
reliant. One hundred miles northwest of Chu
Cheo is the Presbyterian station at Hwaiyuen,
which we intend making the farthest point of our
journey. There will be three men in our party,
the missionary and two Chinese. Chen is an
evangelist and Ding will have as his business the
caring for the animals and baggage. We will
use three animals, one horse and two donkeys.
Chen will ride one donkey 'and the other will
carry extra baggage. Ding will walk. We have
long bedding bags which are laid across our sad-
dles. These contain our blankets, extra clothes,
toilet articles and money. The extra donkey has
a hundred pounds of Gospels, calendars, and
Starting early we will strike a market day at
Shi-gia-dzi, fifteen miles west, up in the heart of
174 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
the low mountains. All the market towns have
two market days in ten. Those of this place
follow the numerals two and seven through the
days of the month and we are starting on the
seventeenth. So we get our baggage ready the
night before and are up by daylight, getting the
animals loaded and eating a light lunch. We
give the last instructions to the medical assistant,
the gardener and cow-man, say good-by to those
who will abide in the home while we are absent,
and follow our animals over the rough pavement
out to the city gate where we mount and ride
Early as we have begun our journey, the
country people are just as early. We pass long
lines of men, women and children bringing in
loads of grain and fuel to the city. Out across
the plain, over the ancient bridges and by the
decaying temples, we wend our way. It is
autumn and the morning air is delightful. Up
over the mountain ridges we ride, stopping a few
moments to look away into the distances or down
on the farmsteads in the valleys beneath. A
pheasant flies out of our path, a rabbit or a moun-
tain deer bounds away into the recesses of the
rocks. Oh, it is delightful up on the mountain
tops where everything is clean and pure.
Two-thirds of the distance to the first market
town has been traversed when we begin over-
taking those going the same way as we are.
WHEN WE GO ITINERATING 175
They are bound for the same destination and will
make up part of the audience which will surround
us all the time we remain in the place. As we
come nearer to the place, from every side we see
long lines of country people pouring into the
already crowded street. We dismount, put our
animals into Ding's care, load our arms with
literature and make our way forward with the
moving throng. We select some convenient
grave or broken down wall on the outskirts of
the crowd where we will not interfere with the
market business and begin our work.
By the time we have reached our position a
dense crowd has surrounded us. We have rung
no bell, have made no outcry to attract the people.
Some one caught sight of the foreigner as we
were approaching the place and passed on the
word up the street, "foreign devil." Foreigners
are rarely seen in those out-of-the-way places and
natural curiosity brings the crowd to our stand.
We begin at once to speak. No hymn is sung,
no prayer publicly offered. When we dismounted
from our animals a silent prayer went up from
our hearts. Now we seek to win the crowd's good
will and gain a hearing for the Gospel message.
How do we preach to them ? We begin by tell-
ing them that we have come ten thousand miles
with a message which has universally brought
joy to all who have received it. They are inter-
ested. We ask if any one among them has found
176 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
the goal of happiness for which they have been
so intensely seeking. No one is willing to ac-
knowledge that he has. We bring to their minds
that all their worship is directed towards the
power of darkness, the devil ; and there is not a
dissenting voice. We remind them that the fear
of death has a hold upon every heart among
'< Heaven is a coffin's lid; earth is the coffin's pit.
Go where one will he still is in the coffin fit,"
Thus we open the way to speak of the One
God who created the heavens and the earth,
Him, who is our common ancestor. We tell of
His great love for man which finally led Him to
give His only Son to die upon the cross that,
through His sacrifice we might be saved from
sin for eternal life.
In the midst of our discourse some little young-
ster on the inner circle who has been eagerly
watching every move of the foreigner and scan-
ning his whole person, suddenly points a grimy
finger and bursts out, ** He's got a ^^/^ tooth."
Instantly the foreigner, who has been smiling at
the crowd to win their good will, finds his mouth
the target of the eyes of the entire inner circle
and other grimy fingers are pointing out the in
teresting tooth. It is useless to continue the
preaching. Interest is now directed towards the
WHEN WE GO ITINERATING 177
foreign hat, clothes and shoes. Some one's fingers
are fingering the pantaloons to see if the cloth is
really wool or leather.
It is a comparatively easy step to lead their
attention from foreign clothes to the books and
literature in hand. The price of a Gospel is
mentioned and we hold it up to view. Instantly
a circle of hands are outstretched and the mission-
ary and evangelist can scarcely pass out the
literature to supply the insistent demand.
When the demand for literature subsides a little
the evangelist takes the stand and farther unfolds
the Story of Life. The personnel of the crowd
constantly changes and we alternate preach-
ing and selling the literature. Most of those
who buy will be unable, themselves, to read the
books they buy but every village has its scholar
and in the evening the crowd will gather around
him as he reads and comments upon the book.
All forenoon long we hold our post (or grave)
until hunger drives us to seek some food. Ding
has taken the animals to an inn and they are
munching contentedly upon their straw and bran.
It will be difficult on a market day to obtain a
regular meal. The cooks are too busy producing
rice cakes, doughnuts and Chinese sandwiches
for the crowds to bother preparing a regular
dinner. Neither has the curiosity of the people
been satisfied and they swarm about the foreigner
wherever he goes. For us to enter an inn or
178 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
restaurant would mean its being jammed full of
people in short order. The proprietor could do
no business. We hunt around until we find a
cup of tea, some peanuts, rice cakes and other
eatables. Then adjourning to some open place
where the crowd can look to their heart's content,
we eat our lunch.
We take our leave of the people and push on
to another place. In one day we may travel
twenty-five miles and find a couple of markets in
full sway. A theatrical or travelling circus may
have drawn a crowd into another centre. Late
in the evening, wearied with the day's work, we
draw into our last town and seek an inn.
Foreigners being considered rich, we are
usually shown to a private room reserved for
officials and wealthy travellers. But we would
prefer the open room and a bundle of straw to
the dungeon-like appearance and dirty bed of
this inner room. The oil dips are lighted and
distributed about the inn. The landlord and
his wife are preparing the supper. Packs are
being taken from the backs of the caravan ani-
mals. The wheelbarrows are creaking into their
place. The inn servants are cutting up the rice
straw for the horses and donkeys. Caravan men
are mending their saddles and feeding their ani-
mals. We sit down on a bench, lean back
against the mud wall and, in the light of the
flickering lamps, watch the scene.
WHEN WE GO ITINERATING 179
The savour of the cooking food as it is wafted
through the inn, is appetizing, more appetizing
than the food itself. The landlord places eggs,
pork, vegetables and the ever-present rice before
us. It is impossible to describe the process of
cooking or separate the various ingredients used
in seasoning ; but we have learned to eat what is
set before us and ask no questions, so we pro-
duce our own chopsticks and draw up to the
table. The landlord has plenty of chopsticks but
they have been wiped so often by the greasy
cloth and stuck into the waistband about his
dirty outer garment that we prefer using our own.
Two well-dressed men wander in while we are
eating but politely sit off to the side and chat
with others during the meal. ' When we are
through they introduce themselves and enter
into conversation. They have heard that we are
considering the advisability of opening a preach-
ing hall in their town. They are sure the people
will be glad to have us do so and they have some
property in a very desirable location for such an
enterprise. We had wondered at their extreme
politeness but it is now all clear. They are
anxious to dispose of some property to the for-
eigner,— at three prices. But we meet them
with equal politeness, for while we are not in
position to consider buying their land, we can
sow a little seed by the wayside and perhaps
some may fall into good ground.
180 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
The younger of the two men is a Moham-
medan. He can give no reason for being one
save that his father was a believer before him
and that his belief keeps him from eating pork.
He, however, does not like to claim that it has
made him any better a man than the old gentle-
man who has accompanied him.
The older man confesses that the road to
heaven is hard to find, but, he continues, " The
road leading downward is wonderfully easy to
enter and most people are kept busy trying to
get out again. The road up is so narrow and
the gate is hard to open." He gave us our text.
Far into the night we forget weariness of body
and talk with them about Him who is " the Way
of Life," whose ** yoke is easy " and " burden is
light." Then we go to bed and forget the dirt
floor, the animals munching away at their food,
the rooster perched over our heads and all the
other depressing surroundings. Oh, blessed
sleep, that can banish trouble and weariness and
gird the body and mind for another day of
One night we trailed into a village just behind
a small caravan. Two young merchants had
been to Nanking to lay in new merchandise for
their up country store. They had hired a driver
with his four animals to transport them and
their freight over the one hundred and fifty
miles of caravan road. A refugee boy had at-
WHEN WE GO ITINERATING 181
tached himself to the company. The driver was
giving him his food for the aid he could render on
the road. We watched him as he trudged after
the animals. His coat was warm but his thin
cotton trousers were torn and offered no protec-
tion. Straw sandals were upon his feet. Provi-
dence was drawing that boy and ourselves to-
gether for very definite purposes.
It was the first day of December but the day
had been balmy and pleasant. In the night the
weather changed and cold rain began to fall. By
morning it had turned to sleet and snow.
Wrapped in our blankets we suffered from the
cold. The road men had spread straw on the
floor and lain up close to each other. In the
middle of the night they built a fire in the
middle of the dirt floor and gathered around it
until the morning dawned. The roads became
a bog and the wind blew sleet that cut through
any one who was bold enough to venture out
doors. We stayed in the inn until the following
day when the weather moderated and the sun
shone once more. There in that inn Lai-fu, the
refugee boy, came to us and has been with us
ever since, now a faithful Christian servant. His
story is told in another chapter.
As we journey from town to town how often do
the appeals from the sick come. We take along
in our travelling outfit a few simple remedies, a
pair of tooth forceps, a lance and some scissors
182 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
with bandages. Many simple troubles can be
thus treated while we are on the road but the
majority of the sick people laid at our feet must
be told to come to our hospital at the station.
One dose of medicine will not affect a cure. We
wish for the power of One who by the touch of
His hand gave sight to the blind, strength to the
palsied limb and health to the fevered body.
Standing by the side of a sick man's bed we
tell them of the Saviour who not only healed the
body but saved the souls of men. They listen
and long again for the presence of Him. The
story of the Great Healer is an attractive one to
this sick world. Under the shade of a friendly
tree they gather about us. They are all sick,
sick in body and sick in soul. China in herself
has no Physician.
So pass the ten days we have taken from our
station work. We preach on temple steps, in
inns, at private homes, to groups by the wayside,
to fellow travellers and at the market towns. We
reach the station of our fellow missionaries and
rest a day before returning. It is sweet to talk
with a coworker in the English tongue once
more. They are glad to see us. Very few for-
eigners' faces do they see during the main part
of the year.
We turn our faces homeward. After living in
Chinese inns and being the daily target of thou-
sands of curious Chinese eyes, home and all it
WHEN WE GO ITINERATING 183
means looms up large. Even though it be planted
in the midst of heathenism, there is no place like
home. We do not tarry much by the way. One
hundred miles will take at least three days. We
push on during the daytime, preaching to the
people where we take our dinners and in the inns
where we rest at night. Upon the last crest of
the low mountains, we look across the plains and
see the three pagodas which mark the city of
Chu Cheo. They never looked so attractive.
But it is only when one has taken the journey
and now entering his own gateway, catches up
the little ones and places them upon the saddle
and thus leading his horse, walks up to his own
door-steps ; it is only then that one can appreci-
ate to the full measure the Christian mission
THE CHINESE EVANGELIST
WE sometimes use the word " born " with
the meaning of natural or ingrained.
We speak of a man being a born
leader, a born mechanic. The Chinese evangeUst
must be made ; he is not born. He has no Chris-
tian ancestry back of him from whom he may in-
herit the essential qualities to fill such an office.
But he is the most needed man in the new Church
in China. The missionary studies every new
convert long and prayerfully to see whether he
may possibly qualify for this important office.
He knows that if China is to be evangelized it
must be done by the Chinese themselves. The
training of the proper men for this service is,
therefore, one of the most important duties of the
The Christians meet together in the Sunday-
school, the prayer-meeting and the Christian
Endeavour Society. They frequently go out in
little bands and speak on the streets, in the chap-
els, at private homes. They invite neighbours
to their homes at the time of evening or morning
worship. The missionary is watching their daily
conduct. He studies them when they are as-
THE CHINESE EVANGELIST 185
sailed by special temptations and trials. He
knows that an ability to speak is far from being
the chief qualification needed in the true evan-
gelist. Sometimes he places a possible candidate
in a position where he can obtain a closer knowl-
edge of the man's character. He is taken into
the compound as a servant or put as keeper of a
street chapel. Many aspire to the position who
are wholly unfitted for such service. They must
be turned back and gently led into some other
channel of usefulness.
Colportage work is often the second step in the
training of evangelists. The Bible societies are
constantly seeking reliable men whom the mis-
sionary can recommend and supervise. These
societies bear all the expense of the colporters
and pay them a reasonable salary. The mission-
ary outlines the routes over which the colporter
will travel, acts as his adviser and sends his re-
ports to the Bible society. It is no easy task to
be a colporter. A copy of one of the Gospels is
sold for about one-half cent American money, yet
the average colporter will be unable to sell more
than a couple of hundred in a month. The Chinese
despise one of their nationality who will become
a Christian. They taunt him with following the
foreigner and '* eating the foreign doctrine." He
must be a skillful handler of men, indeed, who
excells in the selling of Scriptures to the Chinese.
These men must carry their stock-in-trade from
186 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
place to place upon their own shoulders. They
travel in summer heat and winter cold. Petty
persecution and strong temptation assail them.
He who successfully accomplishes a year of
labour as a colporter, can be counted as having
passed the second step which leads to the office
of an evangelist.
The next step in his promotion is the placing
of him in a street chapel not far from the home
of the missionary. His mornings must now be
given to study and his afternoons to preaching.
He follows a carefully-outlined course of Bible-
study. When the missionary travels out through
the country he finds no one better fitted to ac-
company him on such itineraries than a man
who has been all over the ground as a colporter.
Such a helper can lead him to homes and villages
that have shown themselves favourable to the
Gospel. The missionary more closely scrutinizes
the man's preaching and conduct. Little faults
can be corrected and good points encouraged.
Close bonds of fellowship and sympathy become
established between the foreigner and the Chi-
The final instruction given in this college of
evangelism is the gathering, year by year, of the
helpers into a general Bible institute. At some
convenient time in the year they come together
from all the stations into some central point and
there for a few weeks do actual class work and
W' ' ^ '
^■r ■' k .^
THE CHINESE EVANGELIST 187
take notes on lectures. The various missionaries
have in charge their respective departments of
Bible geography, Bible history, church history,
hermeneutics, homiletics, etc. Each speaker
gives a course of a week's lectures in his depart-
ment and makes way for the next course. The
Chinese prepare outlines of sermons and have
them criticised. Mission difficulties and mission
polity are discussed with them and among them.
They are taught the principles of leadership.
By means of such training have many of the
most trusted evangelists in China been fitted for
the positions of trust they are holding. They have
been taken from all walks of life. In our own circle
of workers, Wu Li-Kwan was a boatman, Shi
Gwei-Biao was a story-teller, Chen Li-Seng was a
teacher, Koh was a photographer and Wang
Yung-Seng was his assistant. It has taken long
years to train some of them. Others showed
promise from the first of being fitted for the serv-
ice. When they have proven themselves worthy
and capable of bearing responsibilities of service,
they are sent out to the villages where they open
chapels, build up local churches and work in con-
junction with the missionary to evangelize the
To all of them come temptations and petty
persecutions. They are reviled and hated by
their countrymen who sneeringly speak of them
as ** eating the foreign doctrine," since they are
188 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
under the pay of the missionary society. One
day Mr. Shi, the story-teller, was preaching from
the text, ** Whosoever smiteth thee on the right
cheek, turn to him the other also." A man
stepped up to him from the audience and hit him
on the side of the face. Shi's face reddened and
the hot blood went tingling to his finger-tips.
He started towards the man, stopped, then turned
the other side of his face to the stranger, and said,
** Hit the other side, friend." There was no
quarrel that day.
Once he was called before a very anti-foreign
official as a witness. The official sneeringly asked
him if he had accepted the doctrine of the ** for-
eign devils." He confessed that he had.
" Perhaps you would like to preach to us,"
jeered the official.
** If I should say what I know of the doctrine,
your excellency would say that you knew more.
It is, however, in your power to hear it, should
you so command," was the steady reply.
When the missionary sends out one of these
trained men to open and build up an outstation,
it becomes a mark of the missionary's deepest
faith in him. Strong temptations will assail the
evangelist. Money will be offered him if he will
traffic in the good name of the Church. Foreign
influence in China is strong. Officials fear and
tremble before it. In all the riots and rebellions
which the Chinese have led against foreigners
THE CHINESE EVANGELIST 189
they have invariably been overcome by superior
forces and indemnities extracted from them for
the property they have destroyed. A dread of
becoming mixed up in any business in which the
foreigners are concerned has grown upon the
officials. When legal cases have been brought
before them and any suggestion has been dropped
that the litigants might be connected with the
foreigners, the officials have either rendered un-
just decisions or refused to act in the case.
The common people have readily discovered
this weakness in their rulers and have conse-
quently sought alliance with foreigners. Protes-
tant missionaries have in most cases refused to
meddle in legal affairs, except in cases of extreme
persecution, and the lawless characters among
the people have turned to the native evangelists
and sought to entangle them. In the past few
years thousands of Chinese have sought member-
ship with the Christians for no other reason than
to compel the officials to decide their long stand-
ing law cases in their favour.
Thus it has fallen upon the Chinese evangelist
to not only withstand direct temptation to him-
self, but also to sift the mass of inquirers who
have been gathering about the work. He who is
a Chinese himself is usually better qualified to
separate the real inquirer from the false than is
the missionary who at best is an alien in their
country. Hence it follows that the missionary
190 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
should be in close fellowship with his evangelists.
He must have their confidence and give them
his. Over and over they prove themselves worthy
of all the trust imposed in them. The persecu-
tions borne and the temptations resisted bring
them into a fellowship in the sufferings of Jesus
Christ and an experimental knowledge of the
power of the Holy Spirit which make them worthy
coworkers, indeed, with the most consecrated of
missionaries. One time a missionary was travel-
ling with the Mr. Shi mentioned above. Evening
had brought them to an inn so crowded full of
caravan animals and packs that the only resting
place for them that night was in the open court
within the quadrangle formed by the stables.
They spread some straw upon the rough stones
covering the court, knelt together in their evening
prayer and rolled themselves up in their blankets.
As they lay looking up at the stars the mis-
sionary suddenly asked, " Shi, is Jesus Christ real
to you ? "
" Real to me ? He is more real to me than
" Why, how can that be ? I am right here by
you. You can see me, feel me, hear me. Can
the Master be more real than that?"
** Older brother, you sometimes misunderstand
me and sometimes I misunderstand you ; but
Christ never misunderstands me. He is real to
me, very real."
THE CHINESE EVANGELIST 191
Some of these men have fallen. Standing
alone in the midst of new and unexpected
temptations it is no wonder that some of them
were overwhelmed. They have risen again,
profited by the fall. As the work has grown the
band of evangelists has grown with it. They
have entered into fellowship with one another
and counselled together how to meet the difficult
conditions. Gradually their Christian charac-
ters are winning the confidence of the people
until some have not only become sturdy living
epistles of the Word but have gained a com-
manding moral influence among the people of
the district in which their lives have been cast.
Such lives become prophetic of the days com-
ing when China shall be evangelized by her own
THE CHINESE AS GIVERS
A RICH Chinese is usually a liberal Chi-
nese. He gives to the beggar on the
street, even though it cements the beg-
gar to his profession. He serves rich feasts to
his friends and guests. It is by reason of his
liberality that a great many temples and schools
are built. He, for merit's sake, will build and
equip ferries across the rivers ; and, for the good
will of the people, will construct bridges and
To make a fine display at a wedding or a
funeral all Chinese will spend their last cash and
all they may be able to borrow from their
friends. A community will build a temple in
their midst and establish a priest within its
sanctuaries. It is a popular error among them
that money spent for others accumulates merit,
and merit accumulated, makes entrance into
heaven more sure. In all their religious and
philanthropic gifts fear of the devil and hope of
heaven play a prominent part. By the free use
of money they gain social and legal privileges in
their courts ; why should not a like expenditure
THE CHINESE AS GIVERS 193
gain for them certain advantages in the life to
Yet in spite of their belief in the power of
money to obtain privileges in this life and the
life to come, the priests in the temples, built by
the people, frequently find it difficult to drag
their living out of their unwilling supporters.
Temples on every side are falling into decay.
Perhaps the propaganda of missionaries has
made the people doubt the power of the idols
and hence has lessened their interest in the
temples. Certain it is, that it often takes the
alluring festivities of an idol procession or
similar attraction to draw the people together in
worship and obtain money from them for the re-
pair of some neglected temple. Other means of
support for the temples have been sought for.
Some have been endowed. Mountain lands have
been deeded to others and the priests have
allowed the timber to grow or constructed lime-
kilns as a source of revenue. Such properties
are non-taxable the same as property held for
religious purposes in America.
Is it strange then, that men, when taught the
power of Christ to overcome evil and the accept-
ance of Him as a sure means to the obtaining
of an entrance into heaven, should see in the
Christian faith not only a means of eternal
salvation but also a release from financial
obligations? A great army in the ranks of
194 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
American Christians have seemed to so regard
Christianity. Some have even taken pride in
the fact that their religion had cost them almost
nothing. It takes time and patience and ex-
ample to inoculate the Christian newly born out
of heathenism, with the possibilities of joy to be
found in the practice of ** this grace also."
In the earlier days of the Foreign Christian
Mission work in China, some of the missionaries
told the few Chinese Christians assembled in
conference that for every dollar the Chinese
would raise they would give ten dollars. The
Chinese had been very, very slow in opening up
their purses to the spread of the Gospel. They
were from the ranks of the poorer classes and
very little money passed through their hands
during the course of a year. One or two of
them, however, were impressed with the import
of the offer. For them to raise ten dollars would
mean a gift of one hundred dollars from the mis-
sionaries. Thirty dollars would call for three
hundred dollars. In a little informal committee
meeting held at the end of the conference, they
laid their plans and went to work. At the next
conference they laid thirty dollars as their offer-
ing on the table and asked the missionaries to
put three hundred dollars by its side. That
offering was the beginning of tithing for some of
Every year each station now brings in its offer-
THE CHINESE AS GIVERS 195
ings for the general fund thus started. Its
amount is several times the first offering. When
comparing the respective liberality of American
and Chinese Christians we must remember the
buying value of a dollar in the two countries and
also the amount of the daily wage paid to work-
men. The Chinese are at present giving an
average of twenty cents per member for this their
"foreign mission" offering, or the value of two
days' wages. Outside of the money given for
local work, American Christians do not yet give
an average of one day's wages towards the spread
of the Gospel.
With the fund thus started by the Chinese in
the foreign Christian mission, they have erected
a fine street chapel near the busy river landing
in Nanking. They have mortgaged buildings in
interior points for the opening of other centres.
For one year they paid the salary of an evangel-
ist who was sent to aid in the opening of a new
station in the northern part of Anhwui Province.
The evangelists in the Chu Cheo district have
nearly all gained the right to be enrolled in the
ranks of tithe givers. One-twentieth of their in-
comes goes directly to evangelistic work in the
district. For four years they have supported one
of their number as an extra evangelist. He
works under their committee, makes a tour of
the outstations and ministers in the homes of the
196 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
** The poor ye have always with you." The
northern famines have driven many southward to
the granaries of Nanking and Chinkiang. These
poor refugees did not always reach their destina-
tion. Sick and starving they have fallen by the
wayside, in most cases to die uncared for. Some
have fallen into the hands of the Christians.
Clothes have been put upon their backs. Little
huts have been built for them. They have been
assisted in starting once more on the road to self-
support. They can sell peanuts, doughnuts, or
sweetmeats on the streets or cut fuel on the hills
and find ready sale for it in the towns. Some of
our most honoured Christians have thus been
saved and won.
Tang, a small farmer, died suddenly. He did
not know the danger of eating tainted meat but
it cost him his life. His little girl died at the
same time. There was no money in the home.
His wife and baby were helpless. The Christians
bought a respectable coffin and paid the funeral
expenses. They aided his wife in renting the
little piece of property and placed her in a posi-
tion to help herself.
Suen, another farmer, died one summer of
dysentery. His wife was sick with consumption.
The Christians buried him and raised a sufBcient
sum to send his wife back to her parents' home
where she could be cared for. Djao was an
educated man whom famine had driven from his
THE CHINESE AS GIVERS 197
northern home. He was helped back from beg-
gary and became a Christian. The Christians
raised a sum sufficient to keep him and sohcited
scholars that he might open a school in their
village. He is now one of our strong evangel-
The general Chinese convention meets annually
at the various stations. In order that as many
may attend as possible, the local Christians take
pride and joy in entertaining all who will come
free of cost. Buildings are emptied and rooms
turned into one great bed. The floor is covered
with straw and the men spread their blankets
upon it and sleep much as was done in the
pioneer meetings held by our fathers in America.
The women are lodged in other quarters in like
manner. The cooking is done at one large oven
or stove and tables spread in one enclosure. As
many as one hundred and forty have been thus
entertained at an annual Chinese convention. A
committee has charge of the food supply and one
or two are detailed to do the cooking. None of
the preparations are elaborate except in quantity.
A hog, sheep, numbers of chickens and a quantity
of fish are laid in stock for the campaign. The
inspiration generated in such gatherings is un-
surpassed in any land.
By little gifts the Chinese Christians express
their love towards the missionaries. On Christ-
mas day gifts come to as well as go out from the
198 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
missionary. The Chinese remember the birth-
days of the little children in the mission home.
The gifts consist of brilliant garments for the
babies, beautifully embroidered shoes for the
women, sweet potatoes and sweetmeats for the
table, goats for meat, porcelain, etc.
When F. M. Rains, secretary of the Foreign
Christian Missionary Society, visited the field, in
Chu Cheo he was met at the city gate by the Chris-
tians with a string of ten thousand firecrackers
wound on a bamboo pole. They fired the crack-
ers as they marched ahead of his chair, up the
street, to the church which they had gaily deco-
rated for the occasion. In other instances the
foreign visitors are presented with scrolls on silk
and given elaborate feasts. Missionaries, leaving
on furlough, are escorted on their way in a chair
and sometimes the Christians will show their
deep affection by carrying the chair themselves.
There are other ways in which the Chinese
show their growing liberality. In the ministry
of giving to their fellow countrymen they shine
most brightly and contrast most strongly with
the usual heathen selfish indifference. Some of
the Christians out walking on Christmas day,
found the naked body of a little girl babe thrown
out behind a temple and freezing to death.
They wrapped it in their own coats and tenderly
brought it to the hospital where they spent a day
trying to hold life in the body. They did not
THE CHINESE AS GIVERS 199
succeed in their purpose but the act revealed
their passion for ministry.
A ten-year-old boy was found begging by the
wayside. The toes of one foot had been frozen
ofi. They picked him up and brought him to
the hospital. His body was covered with sores
and vermin. He was cleaned up and put into
better clothes. One day we found him in the
room with our ignorant gateman. They were
talking over something between them. A little
later we heard him, as he sat out on the walk,
slowly repeating, '* Our — Father — who — art — in
— heaven." The ignorant gateman had been
telling him what he could about Christ and had
taught him the Lord's prayer.
It may not be that the Chinese are giving
large sums into the coffers of the Church. They
are not giving as much as they should give.
They do not yet understand how larger gifts can
open the storehouses of God so that by giving
they shall be increased in basket and store and
receive large spiritual blessings. But, year by
year, as the missionary watches the course of
their liberality increase and their love of ministry
grow large, he sees evidences of a future liber-
ality in the Chinese Church which may put to
shame those in more civilized lands.
A MISSIONARY SANITARIUM
** "T^ EFORE we had Kuling," said a mission-
l"*^ ary from Hankow, **some one fell in
M^J our ranks every year. Each spring we
would find ourselves saying under our breaths,
* Who will be the one to fall this year ? ' It was
a nightmare to us. Kuling has been a life-
saving station." That is the experience and
history throughout the Yangtse valley. Since
the Church has decided that what she wants on
the mission field is living workers and not mar-
tyrs' graves, missionaries on all mission fields
have been establishing sanitariums in favourable
places. Many have thus been saved from being
sent home on sick leave and scores of lives have
been spared for long service on the field.
Until about 1895 missionaries in the Yangtse
valley were obliged to remain at their stations
throughout the heat of the summer. Mothers
fanned their children to sleep. Extra servants
were hired to pull the great fans which were
swung over the tables and the beds. Sick peo-
ple were sent to Japan or returned to the home
Jand. Too many graves were being dug in
A MISSIONARY SANITARIUM 201
Some missionaries who had secured the privi-
lege of building stone cottages on the slopes of
the Kuling mountains, conceived the plan of ob-
taining possession of one of the valleys in the
tops of the mountains and opening it for all who
might wish to come. Like every other innova-
tion introduced by the foreigners, the Chinese
looked upon the procedure with suspicion and
it took long, patient, persistent action before the
valley was thrown open to occupation by for-
Kuling is up the Yangtse River about four
hundred and fifty miles from Shanghai. This
river is the great highway over which all pass in
reaching this ** valley on the mountain top."
The river steamer is left at Kiukiang, the porce-
lain market of China. A rest-house with con-
veniences for sleeping and the preparing of
simple meals has been established in this city by
the Kuling management. Each family is ac-
companied by their servants, carry their own
bedding and provide their own food. Chair-
bearers with light open chairs wait to transport
passengers across the ten miles of plain and five
miles of mountain climb. Other carriers fasten
the baggage to their carrying poles and follow
the chair- bearers. The furniture, bedding, provi-
sions, building timber, iron roofing, drugs, crock-
ery and pictures for a thousand men, women, and
children have been carried acrsi«* ^i^e plain ai^d
202 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
up the mountainside on the shoulders of coolies.
Pianos and organs have been transported up the
mountain. Whole houses have been purchased
in Shanghai and, in like manner, transported
from the river steamer to the top of the mountain.
When it is understood that up the mountain
climb there are four long flights of steep stone
stairways, one gains a faint conception of the
task. Given enough Chinese workmen almost
any burden can be moved. The men who do
this transporting of baggage and freight receive
high wages for Chinese. Being largely moun-
tain men they are used to climbing.
Two miles away from the entrance to the
Kuling valley one catches his first glimpse of
the Chinese village which lies just at the " Gap."
After passing the Gap, the valley, with its slopes
thickly studded with the stone cottages, bursts
upon the traveller's view. The valley is nearly
two miles long and contains nearly two hundred
An annually elected council hold rule over the
valley. A paid manager remains the year round
upon the estate, as the valley is technically called.
This manager oversees workmen as they build
new cottages and repair the older ones ; he
guides the labourers in repairing the roads and
maintains a company of patrolmen who watch
over the property. In the summer when the
residents are coming up the mountain, he has
A MISSIONARY SANITARIUM 203
charge of the great army who carry the sedan
chairs and transport the baggage. In filling this
difficult office, many foreigners have come and
gone, but none have succeeded better than John
Berkin, of England, who fills the office at the
present time (1907).
The Kuling estate is granted to the foreigners
by the Chinese government upon a nine-hun-
dred-and-ninety-nine-year lease. The council
give a deed to each lot-holder and this entitles
him to a vote upon all questions arising in the
community. No Chinese can buy or live within
the precincts of the estate except as a servant to
a foreigner. Contractors (Chinese) have shops
at the Gap and stand ready to build or repair
houses. Stone is the universal building material.
Cottages are usually one story and cost from
five hundred to as many thousands of dol-
From almost any point in the valley beautiful
scenery bursts upon one's view. Every resident
believes his home to be situated in the most de-
lightful spot in the valley. The clouds roll up
the mountainside and into the cottage doors.
The sunsets are beautiful beyond description.
From some points lower ranges of mountains
and the distant Yangtse can be plainly seen.
Mountain springs pour out their pure waters. A
stream winds down the valley becoming a never-
failing joy to the paddling children. Swimming
204 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
pools, tennis courts, pleasant walks, and shady-
nooks have been spread along the valley.
A union church opens its doors to all denomi-
nations and all nationalities. Leading mission-
aries from all societies fill the pulpit. Through-
out the summer a Sunday-school gathers the
children together. Lovers of music band to-
gether and furnish a sacred concert at the end of
each season. Loyal Americans celebrate the
Fourth of July, and a day of sports for the chil-
dren is an annual occurrence. Medical, evangel-
istic and educational conferences broaden the
minds and hearts of the resting missionaries.
Probably no theme receives the universal atten-
tion that is given to Christian union.
Young missionaries find the valley a retreat to
which they may come and continue uninter-
rupted their study of the language. The spe-
cially prepared invalid chairs bring up their loads
of men and women who have been prostrated by
uncongenial climate and worn nerves. Up in
the pure mountain air a new lease of life and
strength is granted them. There is a cemetery
at the lower end of the valley but the graves are
Some years ago one of the China Inland mis-
sionaries presented his mission with some fine
school buildings which he had erected on the
estate. This mission, not being prepared to
open the school at once for their own children,
A MISSIONARY SANITARIUM 205
have leased the buildings to a corporation of
missionaries and business men. These have es-
tablished a school for the children of mission-
aries and foreigners in China. Plans are now
being laid for the establishment of a larger and
permanent school at the place for the same pur-
pose. Since the greatest problem before the
average missionary is the education of his chil-
dren, the new school will become a blessing to
the missionary body in China. Without such
privileges missionaries must teach their own chil-
dren until they reach the period for entering high
school and college at which time the home must
be broken up and the children brought to the
home land for the final steps in their education.
Down on the plains at the stations, the little
ones growing up in the mission homes must be
guarded both physically and morally from con-
tagion and contamination. A missionary mother
was one day telling her children the story of
Hagar and Ishmael. She told them how the
two were driven out into the wilderness where
they could find no water. Hagar left Ishmael
under a bush and went away for she could not
bear to see him die. Then God showed her a
spring of water and saved their lives. The mis-
sionary children listened to their mother with
eager interest but did not show great enthusiasm
over the climax of the narrative. After a
moment of silence one of the boys doubtfully
206 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
asked his mother, " Mother, was the water in
that spring boiled ? " They had never tasted un-
boiled water. The Chinese soil is so porous and
the Chinese are so unsanitary in their habits that
the missionaries have learned by bitter experience
to always boil water before using it for drinking
The missionary takes his family to this moun-
tain top for the summer and, with his heart at
rest, returns to his work in the valley. In his im-
agination he sees his little ones playing in the
mountain stream, floating their boats and build-
ing their miniature pebble walls. He knows his
wife is growing rested and strong. If any ac-
cident occurs or sickness should befall them, he
knows there are physicians in Kuling who will
gladly minister to them. While he is sweltering
in the heat of the plains below, he knows they
are sleeping under blankets every night. With
the anxiety for his loved ones taken off his
mind, he can rest in spite of the heat and
quietly do the work needed at the station.
Three thousand Chinese live in the village
at the Gap and minister to the foreign com-
munity. Carpenters, blacksmiths, masons, shoe-
makers, tailors, photographers, tinsmiths, gar-
deners, milkmen, and storekeepers flock up the
mountainside each summer and build or repair
their own rough summer homes. They will
sell flower bulbs, assist in carrying lunch baskets
A MISSIONARY SANITARIUM 207
on a picnic excursion, level a tennis court,
paint an iron roof or build a house as the case
The missionaries do not forget their mission
and message to the Chinese. The welfare of
these "ministering servants" is upon the hearts
of the community. The drainage and sanitation
of the Chinese village is watched as closely as the
valley itself. A dispensary is maintained by
voluntary contributions from the foreigners for
the Chinese. Sickness at the mountain top is not
so common even among the Chinese, but in the
blasting of rock accidents will happen. In the
constant going back and forth from the plain be-
low, disease at times creeps up the mountainside.
Physicians take turns at the dispensary in attend-
ing to the sick or injured Chinese.
In connection with the dispensary is a street
chapel in which the evangelists hold nightly
services. Lantern slides are shown with effect
and much religious literature is sold. On Sun-
day afternoon the union church building is
thrown open to the Chinese. This is more for
the servants who are directly connected with the
missionary homes, many of whom are Christians.
The best Chinese speakers among the mission-
aries fill the pulpit at these services. On Thurs-
day afternoons a service for the Chinese women
is held by the missionary women.
The season passes and the missionary takes
208 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
his family back to the resident station. They
have renewed their strength. The children for
a time have had the privilege of mingling with
other children of their own race and tongue.
They have attended a Sunday-school and church
services in which men and women of their own
kind met together and praised God in the Eng-
lish tongue. Broader visions and greater possi-
bilities in the mission service have come to the
father and mother. They have lost the feeling
of loneliness and isolation. In body, mind and
soul they have been refreshed. God bless Ruling.
THE FASCINATION OF THE MISSION FIELD
WHAT is it that leads men and women
to commit themselves to the mission
field for a life service? More than al-
most any other class of people they are held up
as heroes and their life of sacrificing service is
constantly pointed out to the Church and the
world. Secretaries of foreign mission societies
speak of the sacrifice ; friends of missionaries call
attention to it ; but it is rare that a missionary
himself will be heard characterizing the mission-
ary service as a heroic or self-sacrificing task.
That there are hardships, he never denies, but he
believes that the one who would pity him for the
so-called sacrifices he may be making, has not
yet caught the spirit of the missionary enterprise.
Upon a like basis one might be led to pity our
great Master, for was He not, too, a foreign mis-
sionary ? Did not He empty Himself, " taking
the form of a servant, being made in the image
of man"? " He humbled Himself, becoming
obedient unto death, yea, even the death of the
cross." Now we can say with reverence that it
did not seem to impress Him as a great sacrifice,
for over in Hebrews we are told that He endured
210 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
the cross and despised the shame ** for the joy
that was set before Him."
For the joy that was set before them His dis-
ciples left their nets and shops and schools and
went out to endure hardships in labours, perils
by sea and land, imprisonments and stripes, cold
and hunger, nakedness and the sword,-^r the
joy that zvas set before them. They might have
taken up other lines of business, but the passion for
saving men, even at the expense of losing for
themselves the temporary comforts so highly
prized by other men, sent them out and kept
them out to the end.
For the joy that was set before him, Carey was
constrained to lead the modern missionary enter-
prise ; for the joy that was set before him, Mor-
rison buried himself in a Canton cellar and began
the work of breaking down the walls of China's
exclusiveness ; for the joy that was set before
them, Judson went to Burmah, MofEatt and Liv-
ingstone to Africa, Paton to the New Hebrides,
Miss Agnew and Miss Reed to women of India ;
and a great host of others have ** left all and fol-
lowed Him," — to the mission field.
Missionaries, still living, have left their children
in other loving hands and gone back to the fever-
stricken jungles of Africa and there, upon sick-
beds, still taught their dark brothers and sisters
the way to heaven. Men have brought their
families to the home land, that the children might
THE MISSION FIELD 211
not be denied the privilege of education, and
gone back alone to carry on the work.
Breaking down in health, missionaries have
returned to Christian lands to repair the depleted
strength or pass through grave surgical opera-
tions only to return at the earliest moment to the
land where they had been pouring out their life-
strength and there once more take up the burden.
One family who endured great perils and hard-
ships and suffered much physical pain at the
hand of the Boxers who were ** drunk with the
blood of the martyrs," were sent to Europe and
ministered to by loving friends until their health
was regained. Then they went straight back to
the scene of their tortures and began the task
Two doctors in central China came back to
America when they saw their wives failing iu
health. They brought the best medical skill to
fight the uneven battle with death, — and death
won. They laid their loved ones in their graves,
put their children into schools under the care of
friends and straightway returned to their hos-
pitals and empty homes in China. One mother
returned to the home land three times and then
retried the climate of China hoping to become
acclimatized so that she and her husband might
spend their lives lifting up China. Their great-
est hardship was endured and the greatest sacri-
fice made when they gave up the unequal strug-
212 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
gle and abandoned the thought of foreign mis-
sions as their life-work.
Apparently to live and die upon the mission
field in the midst of the fires they have succeeded
in kindling, is the height of satisfaction to such
men and women. Neither is this ambition con-
fined merely to those who, while still largely ig-
norant of the conditions in heathen lands, offered
themselves for the service. Others who have
gone abroad to visit their friends in mission lands
have been so fascinated by the opportunities
offered in mission service that they have re-
turned to their homes, made necessary arrange-
ments, and offered themselves to their boards.
Business men and women, travelling around the
world for pleasure or other purpose have been
seized with the same impulse and while they
could not give themselves to direct missionary
service, have gladly given of their means.
It is not blind fanaticism which thus attracts
and holds one to the foreign mission field. Con-
tact with actual heathenism robs visionary and
misguided zeal of its halo and places the mis-
sionary face to face with hard facts. If he
stays at the task it is because something besides
fanaticism holds him there. There is a joy in the
mission service, joy so great that other passions
have little influence.
The rank and file of the Christian Church
in the home lands do not seem able to com-
THE MISSION FIELD 213
prehend the possibilities of obtaining joy in
such an undertaking as the conversion of the
heathen world. Perhaps one must have fellow-
ship in the sufferings of Christ before he can fully
appreciate fellowship in His joy. To the mis-
sionary there is no greater work than treading
in the footsteps of Christ and His disciples in
fields where the need is great and the labourers
few. To be planted in the midst of a people
whose bodies, minds and souls are crying out for
the *' Glad Tidings " you have to offer ; and to
be the only ones in that field who can give it to
them, — that is opportunity, and that is joy.
The missionary has not been in the field long
before he is borne down with the appalling fam-
ine which is desolating heathen hearts. They
are starving and dying for want of love and
hope. Each separate man and woman among
them seems so intensely seeking some way out
of the awful tangle, called life, that he has be-
come callous to the sufferings of all others.
Every man is fighting to save himself. It mat-
ters not if salvation is obtained by climbing over
the prostrate forms of fellow men. Doubt, fear
of demons and the consciousness of sin possess
them all. They are lost and know not the way
home. " They are as sheep without a shepherd."
They die like wild beasts beside the roadway
and on the street corners. They are alone in their
misery with no one to pity, to comfort, to help.
214 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
They laugh and joke ; they feast and listen to
the story-tellers ; they buy and sell ; they grow
rich and grow poor ; they marry and produce
children ; the children play about the streets like
so many kittens and puppies ; but through it all
one can almost hear the muttered expression,
** Let us eat and drink and be merry ; for to-
morrow we die."
There is a pitiableness in the appeal of the
beggar by the road ; a loneliness about the
refugee dumbly pursuing his way towards the
land of plenty which ever eludes him like a
will-o'-the-wisp ; a hopelessness about the father
or mother bending over the sick child ; a misery
in it all which grips the missionary and holds
him to his post. One missionary, after passing
through the first years of contact with heathen-
ism, in a letter to his father, cried out his heart-
sickness. " It breaks my heart to see the misery
of these starving people, starving for want of bread
and for want of hope. I wish the Christians
in America could be brought face to face wdth
these people for a little while that they might
realize their duty. It breaks my heart to see
the suffering but, after once seeing it, I could
not leave them if I would. They need me and 1
The missionary has watched the people as the
love of Christ slowly penetrated their hearts.
They have been dwarfed and deformed by
THE MISSION FIELD 215
heathenism. Crushed and stunted, can they
really be made to respond to the warmth of His
love? The missionary watches over the first
glimmering response to that love. He sees the
hard lines disappear and the hope grow in their
hearts. The love of Christ does satisfy the
hearts of all men. The beggar and the prince,
the ignorant and the educated, the yellow and
the white race, all alike quench their thirst when
they come to this fountain. There is naught else
in the wide universe which will meet and satisfy
the hearts of all men save the love of Christ.
To watch the fear going out and the peace com-
ing into a Chinese heart is worth all the hard-
ships one endures on the mission field.
The missionary did not go to China expecting
to find good roads, carriages, electric cars,
railroads, telephones, and well-equipped stores
in every town. Friends will often ask, ** Do you
really like it better out there than here in the
home land?" The missionary recalls the first
sight of America he obtained when returning
after an absence of seven or eight years. He
remembers the thrill he experienced when the
sight of the stars and stripes floating from the
mast of some vessel greeted his eyes. He thinks
of the maples, the oaks, the elms; the stores
with their great show windows, the streets with
their fine pavements, the loved friends who
gathered around to greet the ones long-absent
216 BREAKING DOWN CHINESE WALLS
from their midst and he has no hesitancy in say-
ing, " I love America above all other lands."
But when the same friends change the form of
the question to ** Do you like it out there?" the
answer must be very different. Ask the soldier
under fire, or enduring the hardships of the
march or the privations of the camp, if he likes
it. Ask the physician who is being called at all
hours of the day and night to face contagion and
virulent diseases, if he likes it. Ask the mes-
senger who goes out from the palace of the king
to bear a message to some far frontier point, if he
likes the work. They will tell you that whether
they like it or not, that has nothing to do with
the service they are rendering to mankind.
They render the service because that is their
business. Do they receive adequate compensa-
tion for what they do ? might be a more timely
Sleeping in dirty inns, travelling over difficult
roads, enduring the tropical heat and heavy rains,
facing persecutions and hunger, isolated from
congenial associations, rearing children far away
from their own kind, becoming companion and
teacher to them, the missionary asks not if he likes
it all. He is there because the love of Christ con-
strained him to come and compensates him for the
sacrifices he makes and the hardships he endures.
It is the King's business. The King commands
and he obeys.
THE MISSION FIELD 217
When Christians in all lands will have learned
to attend services, teach and pray, visit the sick
and the stranger, minister to the poor and the
afflicted, seek the lost and strengthen the weak,
because it is the King's business and the King
commands, then God will open the windows of
heaven and pour out a blessing that there shall
not be room enough to receive it.
" I am so glad ! It is such rest to know
That Thou hast ordered and appointed all,
And wilt yet order and appoint my lot.
For though so much I cannot understand.
And would not choose, has been, and yet may be,
Thou choosest, Thou performest. Thou, my Lord.
That is enough for me."
Printed in the United States of America.
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Will prove of special interest to " Disciples of Christ " as
an appreciation of one of their own heroes.
Illustrated, net #1.26
JASPER T. MOSES
Helen E. Moses
Of the Christian Woman's Board of Missions.
" The story of her life and its results would be inspiration
to anyone — it is renewed inspiration for those who knew
her." — Indiana News. Net #1.00
GEORGE F. HERRICIC, P.P.
Fifty Years Mistionarj of the American Board in Turkef
Christian and Mohammedan
A Plea for Bridging the Chasm. Illustrated, net $1.25.
"Dr. Herrick has given his life to missionary work among
the Mohammedans. Opinions from leading missionaries to
Mohammedans, in all parts of the world have been brought
together in the book for the elucidation of essential points
of the problem and form an immensely practical feature of
the discussion." — Henry Otis Dwight, LL.D,
JAMES L. BARTON, D. D.
Human Progress Through Missions
i2mo, cloth, net 50c.
By the Foreign Secretary of the American Board. The
book is a notable addition to the apologetics of Missions and
will carry a message of conviction to many a reader who
may not be fully persuaded of the value and necessity of
Christian work in foreign lands.
ALICE M. GUERNSEY
A Queen Esther Round Robin
Decorated Paper, in Envelope, net 250.
"It was a pretty conceit to have a disbanding migsion
circle keep up their mutual connection by writing a "round
robin." It is just the thing for girls' mission bands."—
S. S. Times.
S, M. ZWEMER, F.R.G.S.
Arabia : The Cradle of Islam
Studies in the Geography, People and Politics of
the Peninsula; with an account of Islam and Mis-
sionary Work. New Edition, Illustrated. 8vo,
Cloth, net $2.00.
The Stolen Bridegroom EAs^?i?D?A"N^"^vrxs
Illustrated, i2mo, cloth, net 750.
The author has vividly portrayed some of the ways in
which Christ enters the Hindu heart; Just the book to read
in the auxiliary society or to bring into the reading club.**— •
Children's Missionary Series
Cloth, decorated, each, net 60c.
Children of Persia. Mrs. Napier Malcolm.
Children of Borneo. Edwin H. Gomes.
Each volume is written by an authority on tHe countries
represented as well as by a writer who knows how to tell
a Story that will both entertain and instruct children.
ROBERT E. SPEER The Cole Lectures for igil.
Some Great Leaders in the World
Movement i2mo, cloth, net $1.25
Mr. Speer in his characteristic inspiring way has pre-
sented the key note of the lives of six of the World's great-
eat missionaries: Raymond Lull, the crusading spirit ID mis-
sions; William Carey, the problems of the pioneer; Alexander
Duff, Missions and Education; George Bowen, the ascetic
ideal in missions; John I^awrence, politics and missions; and
Charles G. Gordon, modern missionary knight^errancy.
S. M. ZIVEMER, F.R.G.S.y and Others
Islam and Missions
i2mo, cloth, net $1.50.
This volume presents the papers read at the Second
Conference on Missions to Moslems, recently held in I^uck-
now, India. The contributors are all experts of large ex-
pepience in such mission effort.
V ANSOMMER, ANNIE, and Others
Daylight in the Harem
A New Era for Moslem Women. In Press.
Woman's work for Woman is nowhere more needed than
on the part of Christian women for their sisters of Islam.
It is a most difficult field of service, but this volume by au-
thors long and practically interested in this important Chris-
tian ministry, oemonstrates how effectually this work has
opened and is being carried forward with promising results.
ROBERT A. HUME, P.P.
An Interpretation of India's Religious
Ht Arkfxr Introduction by President King^ LLyD.
tUSrOry ofOberUn College
i2mo, cloth, net $1.25.
The author of this careful, though popular, study, is
eminently qualified to deal with the subject of his thought-
ful volume. Equipped for this purpose through long resi-
dence in India and intimate study of India's religious his-
tory, what he says will be accepted as the estimate and in-
terpretation of an authority.
MARGARET E. BURTON
The Education of Women in China
"^.llustrated, i2mo, cloth, net $1.25.
The author of this scholarly study of the Chinese woman
and education is the daughter of Prof. Ernest E- Burton, of
the University of Chicago The work is probably the
most thorough study of an important phase of the economic
development of the world's most populous country that has
FOREIGN MISSIONS— BIOGRAPHY
daptiel McGilvary, p.p.
A Half Century Among the Siamese
and the Lao
An Atitobiography of Daniel McGilvary, D.D.
With an Introduction by Arthur J. Brown, D.D.
Illustrated, i2mo, cloth, net $2.00.
There is no more fascinating story in fiction, or in that
truth which is stranger than fiction The years of toil and
privation of loneliness and sometimes of danger; how the
missionaries persevered with splendid faith and courage until
the foundations of a prosperous mission were laid are por-
trayed with graphic power. It is a book of adventure and
human interest and a notable contribution to American for-
eign missionary literature." — Presbyterian Banner.
WILLIAM ELLIOT GRIFFIS, P.P., L.H.D,
A Modern Pioneer in Korea
The Life Story of Henry G. Appenzeller. Illus-
trated, i2mo, cloth, net $1.25.
This life is another stirring chapter in the record of
modern missionary heroism. The author's name is a guar-
antee of its thoroughness, accuracy and interest. Dr. GriflRs
has woven a most picturesque and interesting background of
Korean landscape, life and history. It is a book that will
win interest in missionary effort.
MARGARET E. BURTON
Notable Women of Modem China i
Illustrated, i2mo, cloth, net $1.25.
ITie author's earlier work on the general subject of
Wbmen's E^ducation in China, indicates her ability to treat
with peculiar interest and discernment the characters making
up this volume of striking biographies. If these women are
types to be followed by a great company of like aspirations
the future of the nation is assured.
ROBERT McCHEYNE MATEER
Character-Building in China
The Life Story of Julia Brown Mateer. Illustra-
ted, i2mo, cloth, net $1.00.
"Gives a vivid, many-sided picture of missionary worK.
It IS, in fact, an answer to such questions as. How is mis-
sionary life practically lived? It is of engrossing interest
alike to the advocates of missionary work and general readers
who enjoy real glimpses of foreign and pagan civilization."—
miM\ IT 16
IN U. S. A.